A prospective study of systolic ejection murmurs and left ventricular outflow tract in boxers
Article first published online: 9 DEC 2010
© 2010 British Small Animal Veterinary Association
Journal of Small Animal Practice
Volume 52, Issue 1, pages 11–17, January 2011
How to Cite
Höglund, K., Häggström, J., Bussadori, C. and Kvart, C. (2011), A prospective study of systolic ejection murmurs and left ventricular outflow tract in boxers. Journal of Small Animal Practice, 52: 11–17. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5827.2010.01009.x
- Issue published online: 22 DEC 2010
- Article first published online: 9 DEC 2010
- Accepted: 27 September 2010; Published online: 9 December 2010
Objectives: To investigate the prevalence and progression of murmurs and the development of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and flow velocities in the great arteries in boxer puppies through adolescence until three years of age.
Methods: Nineteen boxer puppies with or without a low-intensity murmur, but without evidence of congenital heart disease, were studied prospectively. Examinations were carried out at 7 weeks, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12 and 36 months of age by cardiac auscultation and Doppler echocardiography.
Results: Presence and intensity of heart murmurs varied in the same dog and between dogs, but flow velocities did not change. Estimated effective orifice diameter (EOD) and indexed EOD was significantly narrower than measured subvalvular and valvular diameters.
Clinical Significance: The variability in presence and intensity of low-intensity ejection murmurs is high during growth in boxers.