Objectives: To describe the occurrence of systemic hypertension in dogs with acute kidney injury and the efficacy of amlodipine besylate for its treatment.
Methods: This retrospective study included 52 dogs with acute kidney injury (2007 to 2008) grouped based on the use of amlodipine in their treatment. Systemic blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric device at admission, before, during, and after amlodipine therapy.
Results: Occurrence of systolic systemic hypertension (≥160 mmHg) and severe systolic systemic hypertension (≥180 mmHg) was 37% and 15% at admission and increased with hospitalisation to 81% and 62%, respectively. Twenty-two dogs were treated with amlodipine, at a median daily dosage of 0·38 mg/kg (interquartile range 0·28 to 0·49) divided in one to two applications per day. Amlodipine therapy was associated with a decrease in systolic systemic blood pressure of 24 mmHg (12 to 34) and a correction of severe systemic hypertension in 10 of 11 dogs within 24 hours. Overall, 73% of the dogs survived with a significantly lower proportion of survivors in treated compared to non-treated dogs (59% versus 83%, respectively, P=0·05).
Clinical Significance: Results of this study reveal that systemic hypertension is common in canine acute kidney injury and that treatment with amlodipine is beneficial in reducing systemic hypertension. The potential effect of amlodipine on global outcome requires prospective assessment.