To identify breed-associated risk factors for urolithiasis in dogs from the UK.


Records of all canine uroliths submitted to Hills Pet Nutrition UK for analysis at the University of Minnesota Urolith Centre over 10 years (1997 to 2006) were reviewed. The results, along with the request forms completed by the submitting veterinarian, were analysed. The most commonly affected breeds, age and gender of the dogs were identified for each of the most common types of uroliths (struvite, calcium oxalate, urate, cystine and mixed). Pearson's chi-squared tests were performed to assess whether certain breeds of dogs were over-represented relative to a reference population (from an insurance database).


The records of 14,008 urolith submissions were analysed. The relative frequency of struvite remained stable over time, whereas calcium oxalate decreased over the study period. Breeds found to be significantly over-represented for calcium oxalate uroliths included the Chihuahua, miniature poodle and Yorkshire terrier. Staffordshire bull terriers and English bulldogs were at increased risk for cystine uroliths.

Clinical Significance

Associations between breed, gender, age and urolith formation were similar to those reported elsewhere. However, temporal trends and novel breed predispositions were identified.