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Life history, damage assessment and control of Trioza hopeae (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), a serious pest on Hopea odorata (Malvales: Dipterocarpaceae) in Vietnam


Rod Eastwood, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, 26 Oxford Street, Cambridge MA 02138, USA. Email:


Young plants of the commercially important timber species Hopea odorata Roxb. are seriously damaged by the psyllid Trioza hopeae Burckhardt & Vu in nurseries in South Central and Southern Vietnam. Farmers routinely use Class 1 toxic insecticides to control the psyllids but these pose serious health risks in the urban environment. As a precursor to developing a pest management strategy, we studied the life cycle of T. hopeae and trialed several control measures. Trioza hopeae is polyvoltine with overlapping generations peaking in mid wet season. Females laid approximately 135 eggs; however, there was a natural attrition rate of about 80% in first-instar nymphs due to the nymph's inability to find a suitable feeding site. Feeding nymphs induced pit galls on young H. odorata leaves and were present on all trees examined during the study. The pre-adult life cycle lasted approximately 13 days and adult life span approximately seven days. Several toxic insecticides were found to be effective for controlling T. hopeae, but a novel non-toxic alternative was equally as effective. We discuss these methods and potential biological control measures.