Regulatory policy outputs and impacts: Exploring a complex relationship
Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd
Regulation & Governance
Volume 6, Issue 4, pages 427–444, December 2012
How to Cite
Knill, C., Schulze, K. and Tosun, J. (2012), Regulatory policy outputs and impacts: Exploring a complex relationship. Regulation & Governance, 6: 427–444. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-5991.2012.01150.x
- Issue published online: 10 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 6 AUG 2012
- Accepted for publication 16 June 2012.
- clean air regulations;
- impact data;
- measurement concept;
- output data;
- regulatory policy change
In this article, we pursue the objective of empirically testing the extent to which changes in environmental policy outputs can explain changes in environmental impacts. Previously, systematic testing of this relationship was hampered by the lack of a compelling measurement of changes in regulatory policy outputs. To remedy this, we present a novel approach to the measurement of events of regulatory output change. We illustrate our concept by employing data on changes in clean air regulations in 24 advanced democracies from 1976 to 2003. In a next step, we explore the extent to which changes in clean air regulations can account for changes in air pollutant emissions. The empirical analysis suggests that changes in clean air regulations cannot be unconditionally associated with changing intensities of air pollutant emission. We deem these results to have far-reaching implications for the study of regulatory policy change.