FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT OF THE CAUDAL MUSCLES IN THE SHORTFIN PILOT WHALE

Authors


Abstract

Controversy has existed about the power stroke of cetacean locomotion. We therefore measured cross-sectional areas of the appropriate muscles of the tail and computed possible forces and bending moments. The muscle areas are approximately equal in size and a similar relationship holds for the caudal tendons. It appears that the hypoaxial and epiaxial muscles are capable of generating forces that are approximately equal. Thrust delivered in the upstroke and downstroke may therefore be equal.

Ancillary