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Keywords:

  • pinnipeds;
  • seals;
  • chemical restraint;
  • immobilization;
  • anesthesia

Abstract

Drugs used to restrain and anesthetize pinnipeds have included neuromuscular blocking agents, narcotic analgesics, barbiturates, cyclohexamines, ataractics and inhalational agents. Problems associated with narrow margins of safety, thermoregulatory disturbances, cardiovascular changes and fatalities have excluded all but the cyclohexamines, ataractics and inhalational agents from presently accepted drugs for chemical restraint and anesthesia of pinnipeds. Combinations of tiletamine hydrochloride and zolazepam hydrochloride show great promise for immobilizing some species of pinnipeds in the field and inhalational agents are recommended for surgical anesthesia.