Current address: National Marine Mammal Laboratory, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, Washington 98115, U. S. A.
THREE-DIMENSIONAL DIVING BEHAVIORS OF RINGED SEALS (PHOCA HISPIDA)
Article first published online: 26 AUG 2006
Marine Mammal Science
Volume 17, Issue 4, pages 909–925, October 2001
How to Cite
Simpkins, M. A., Kelly, B. P. and Wartzok, D. (2001), THREE-DIMENSIONAL DIVING BEHAVIORS OF RINGED SEALS (PHOCA HISPIDA). Marine Mammal Science, 17: 909–925. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2001.tb01305.x
- Issue published online: 26 AUG 2006
- Article first published online: 26 AUG 2006
- Received: 23 October 2000. Accepted: 28 February 2001
- diving behavior;
- three-dimensional movement;
- ringed seal;
- Phoca hispida
Dives of five freely diving ringed seals were classified into three-dimentional movement types. Horizontally convoluted dives, defined as dives with angular velocity > 15°/sec, appeared to be foraging or social dives. Simple dives that did not include convoluted movements (angular velocity < 10°/sec) were considered to be exploration dives. Directional dives with nearly linear horizontal travel (horizontal directionality >0.6, on a scale of 0–1) were presumed to be travel dives. Each three-dimensional dive type was observed with similar frequency in dives with two distinct time-depth profiles: V-shaped profiles in which ascent immediately followed descent, and U-shaped profiles in which >7 sec were spent at depth between descent and ascent. The lack of behavioral differences between dives with distinct time-depth profiles suggested that time-depth profiles are not a reliable means of inferring dive behaviors for ringed seals.