COST OF TRANSPORT IN STELLER SEA LIONS, EUMETOPIAS JUBATUS

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Abstract

The cost of swimming is a key component in the energy budgets of marine mammals. Unfortunately, data to derive predictive allometric equations are limited, and estimates exist for only one other species of otariid. Our study measured the oxygen consumption of three juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus) swimming in a flume tank at velocities up to 2.2 m sec−1. Minimum measured cost of transport ranged from 3.5–5.3 J kg−1 m−1, and was reached at swimming speeds of 1.7–2.1 m s−1. These cost-of-transport values are higher than those reported for other marine mammals. However, once differences in stationary metabolic rate were accounted for, the locomotor costs (LC) for the Steller sea lions were commensurate with those of other marine mammals. Locomotor costs (LC in J m−1) appeared to be directly proportional to body mass (M in kg) such that LC = 1.651M1.01. These estimates for the cost of locomotion can be incorporated into bioenergetic models and used to determine the energetic consequences of observed swimming behavior in wild marine mammals.

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