Get access

Florida red tide and brevetoxins: Association and exposure in live resident bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) in the eastern Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A.


  • This publication does not constitute an endorsement of any commercial product or intend to be an opinion beyond scientific or other results obtained by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). No reference shall be made to NOAA, or this publication furnished by NOAA, to any advertising or sales promotion which would indicate or imply that NOAA recommends or endorses any proprietary product mentioned herein, or which has as its purpose an interest to cause the advertised product to be used or purchased because of this publication.

Current address: Marine Biotoxins Program, NOAA-National Ocean Service, 219 Fort Johnson Road, Charleston, South Carolina 29412, U.S.A.


Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) along the Gulf of Mexico are frequently exposed to blooms of the toxic alga, Karenia brevis, and brevetoxins associated with these blooms have been implicated in several dolphin mortality events. Studies on brevetoxin accumulation in dolphins have typically focused on analyses of carcasses from large-scale die-offs; however, data are scarce for brevetoxin loads in live individuals frequently exposed to K. brevis blooms. This study investigated in vivo brevetoxin exposure in free-ranging bottlenose dolphins resident to Sarasota Bay, Florida, utilizing samples collected during health assessments performed during multiple K. brevis blooms occurring from 2003 to 2005. Brevetoxins were detected by ELISA and LC-MS in 63% of bottlenose dolphins sampled (n= 30) concurrently with a K. brevis bloom. Brevetoxins were present in urine and gastric samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 9 ng PbTx-3 eq/g, and in feces at concentrations ranging from 45 to 231 ng PbTx-3 eq/g. Samples from individuals (n= 12) sampled during nonbloom conditions (≤1,000 cells/L) were negative for brevetoxin activity. Brevetoxin accumulation data from this study complement dolphin carcass and prey fish data from the same study area, and aid in evaluating impacts of harmful algal blooms on sentinel marine animal species along the west Florida coast.