Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in multiple tissues of wild and captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the California coast
Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2011
© 2011 by the Society for Marine Mammalogy
Marine Mammal Science
Volume 28, Issue 3, pages 542–560, July 2012
How to Cite
Germain, L. R., McCarthy, M. D., Koch, P. L. and Harvey, J. T. (2012), Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in multiple tissues of wild and captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) off the California coast. Marine Mammal Science, 28: 542–560. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-7692.2011.00516.x
- Issue online: 3 JUL 2012
- Version of Record online: 5 AUG 2011
- Received: 12 July 2010 , Accepted: 15 April 2011
Figure S1. δ13C and δ15N equilibration times for serum, muscle (Bulk and Lipid-extracted [LE]), and blubber (Lipid and LE). Each data point represents an individual seal, which had either died or was successfully released between days 0 to 93 from admittance date to TMMC (refer to Table S1). Seals were fed salmon oil (δ13C = -21.7‰, δ15N = 5.4‰) for the first week, and then switched to ground herring for the remainder of time (δ13C = -19.4‰, δ15N = 12.5‰).
Figure S2. Stable carbon vs. nitrogen in blood serum of harbor seals for all locations. Refer to legend for symbol description. TB = Tomales Bay (black), SFB = San Francisco Bay (dark gray), CI = Channel Islands (light gray), A = Adult > 4 yr (diamond), SA = Subadult 2--4 yr (square), Y = Yearling 1--2 yr (star), W = Weaner 1 mo--1 yr (triangle).
Table S1. δ13C and δ15N of all tissues (serum, muscle, blubber) for captive, rehabilitating seals at TMMC (LE = Lipid Extracted). Tissue was collected once, on final day in center either due to successful release, death, or euthanization (R, D, E). Discrimination factors (ΔTissue-Diet) were determined from seals at TMMC for greater than 30 d (bolded). Health (1 = emaciated, 7 = obese). Refer to Table S2 for specific tissue isotopic equilibrium graphs after grouping values from seals released or deceased over varying time frames in TMMC.
Table S2. ANOVA statistical analysis of interaction effects between sex, location, and age were used for both cell fractions (RBC and serum) on δ13C and δ15N. Degrees of freedom (df), sum of squares, F-Ratios, and P-values are given for each test. Significant interactions are those with P < 0.05 (bolded) and are presented in Figures 3 and 4. Both RBC and serum are discussed to determine temporal changes in trophic-level feeding behavior in specific groupings.
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