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Figure S1. Results from PICs with mirrored phylogenetic trees tracing the evolution of orbit size and diving depth in crown pinnipeds. This figure is a pruned version of Figure 1B, showing only taxa with both comparable metrics: (A) Log AveOrb (cm) compared with (B) Log Depth (m). Traits are mapped using squared change parsimony; trait values are binned by color at regular intervals. These results formed the basis for PIC regression and ancestral node comparisons (Table 6, 7). See text for more details.

Figure S2. Results from PICs with mirrored phylogenetic trees tracing the evolution of body mass and diving depth in crown pinnipeds. This figure is a pruned version of Figure 1B, showing only taxa with both comparable metrics: (A) Log Mass (kg) compared with (B) Log Depth (m). Traits are mapped using squared change parsimony; trait values are binned by color at regular intervals. These results formed the basis for PIC regression and ancestral node comparisons (Table 6, 7). See text for more details.

Table S1. Results of Welch's two-sample t-tests comparing absolute orbit size (AveOrb) in individual pinniped species to outgroup species, see text for more details. Column headings are: mean (\overline{x}), standard deviation (SD), sample size (n), t-statistics (t), and P-value (P). Where t-statistic >0, orbit size in the pinniped species is larger than in the outgroup species. Arctocephalus philippii and A. tropicalis could not be included in this analysis as the sample sizes were too small (n = 1).

Table S2. Results of Welch's two-sample t-tests comparing relative orbit size (AveOrb/CBL) in individual pinniped species to outgroup species, see text for more details. Column headings are: mean (\overline{x}), standard deviation (SD), sample size (n), t-statistics (t), and P-value (P). Where t-statistic >0, relative orbit size in the pinniped species is larger than in the outgroup species. Arctocephalus philippii and A. tropicalis could not be included in this analysis as the sample sizes were too small (n = 1). Note: Odobenus rosmarus is the only pinniped species with statistically smaller eyes than an outgroup taxon, Enhydra lutris.

Table S3. Fossil values for relative orbit size in select fossil pinnipeds. The ratio between BZB and average orbit size (AveOrb) were rounded to two decimal places. Species values are monospecific except for Allodesmus and Pteronarctos, which represent A. kelloggi (LACM 4320) and A. gracilis (UCMP 81708), and P. goedertae (LACM 123883) and P. piersoni (LACM 127972, 128002), respectively.

FilenameFormatSizeDescription
MMS_545_sm_FigS1.pdf288KSupporting info item
MMS_545_sm_FigS2.pdf286KSupporting info item
MMS_545_sm_TableS1-S3.doc187KSupporting info item

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