A subgroup of a population of Tursiops truncatus in southern Brazil is known for a cooperative behavior with artisanal fishermen whereby the dolphins shoal fish towards net-casting fishermen. Combining photo-identification data collected between September 2007 and 2009 with mark-recapture and Pollock's robust design models, we assessed abundance within seasons and survival and temporary emigration rates of dolphins between seasons. We also reanalyzed a previous data set collected during 1989–1991, and Cormack-Jolly-Seber models were applied to estimate survival rates for each of the study periods. The abundance of marked “cooperative” dolphins varied between seasons from 18 (CI: 17–24) to 21 (CI: 20–24). The total abundance varied from 59 in the winter of 2008 (CI: 49–72) to 50 in the autumn of 2009 (CI: 40–62). The annual adult survival was estimated to be 0.917 (CI: 0.876–0.961), close to that estimated from data collected in the 1990s (0.941; CI: 0.888–0.998). The emigration probability was low (0.031; CI: 0.011–0.084) and different capture probabilities between the “cooperative” and “noncooperative” dolphins indicated a degree of behavioral segregation. The precision of our estimates is likely to provide sufficient power to detect population change, but we recommend a precautionary management approach to protect this vulnerable dolphin community and its unique cooperative feeding tradition.