We compared the detection rate of cervical neoplasias between a liquid-based cytology (LBC) method using SurePath and the conventional method. We also studied the feasibility of human papillomavirus (HPV) typing by linear array assay. Cytological specimens from 1551 Japanese women were prepared using the conventional and SurePath methods; the cytological and histological results from biopsy samples were compared. HPV typing using an HPV linear array assay was carried out on residual specimens using the SurePath method. The cytodiagnostic results showed a concordance rate of 85.3% (κ= 0.46) between the two methods. The sensitivity of lesions histopathologically diagnosed as CIN1 or above was not significantly different between the two methods (P= 0.575–1.000). The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of the detectability in CIN2 or above revealed no significant difference between the two methods (P= 0.096). Among the 44 patients who underwent HPV typing using a linear array assay, 33 samples were eligible for HPV testing and were stored at ambient temperature. In conclusion, the SurePath and conventional methods have equivalent abilities for detecting cervical lesions. After preparation for cytological diagnosis, use of the remaining cells from the SurePath specimens to perform HPV typing using the linear array method could be feasible.