Broad Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Activities of AG3340, a Potent and Selective MMP Inhibitor Undergoing Advanced Oncology Clinical Trials


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ABSTRACT: We studied AG3340, a potent metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor with pM affinities for inhibiting gelatinases (MMP-2 and -9), MT-MMP-1 (MMP-14), and collagenase-3 (MMP-13) in many tumor models. AG3340 produced dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and was well tolerated after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral dosing in mice. Across human tumor models, AG3340 produced profound tumor growth delays when dosing began early or late after tumor implantation, although all established tumor types did not respond to AG3340. A dose-response relationship was explored in three models: COLO-320DM colon, MV522 lung, and MDA-MB-435 breast. Dose-dependent inhibitions of tumor growth (over 12.5-200 mg/kg given twice daily, b.i.d.) were observed in the colon and lung models; and in a third (breast), maximal inhibitions were produced by the lowest dose of AG3340 (50 mg/kg, b.i.d.) that was tested. In another model, AG3340 (100 mg/kg, once daily, i.p.) markedly inhibited U87 glioma growth and increased animal survival. AG3340 also inhibited tumor growth and increased the survival of nude mice bearing androgen-independent PC-3 prostatic tumors. In a sixth model, KKLS gastric, AG3340 did not inhibit tumor growth but potentiated the efficacy of Taxol. Importantly, AG3340 markedly decreased tumor angiogenesis (as assessed by CD-31 staining) and cell proliferation (as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation), and increased tumor necrosis and apoptosis (as assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL staining). These effects were model dependent, but angiogenesis was commonly inhibited. AG3340 had a superior therapeutic index to the cytotoxic agents, carboplatin and Taxol, in the MV522 lung cancer model. In combination, AG3340 enhanced the efficacy of these cytotoxic agents without altering drug tolerance. Additionally, AG3340 decreased the number of murine melanoma (B16-F10) lesions arising in the lung in an intravenous metastasis model when given in combination with carboplatin or Taxol. These studies directly support the use of AG3340 in front-line combination chemotherapy in ongoing clinical trials in patients with advanced malignancies of the lung and prostate.