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Regulation of Postimplantation Mouse Embryonic Growth by Maternal Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide

Authors

  • CATHERINE Y. SPONG,

    1. Section on Developmental and Molecular Pharmacology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
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  • SUSAN J. LEE,

    1. Section on Developmental and Molecular Pharmacology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
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  • SUSAN K. McCUNE,

    1. Division of Neonatology, Children's National Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, George Washington University, Washington, D.C. 20010, USA
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  • GRETCHEN GIBNEY,

    1. Section on Developmental and Molecular Pharmacology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
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  • DANIEL T. ABEBE,

    1. Section on Developmental and Molecular Pharmacology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
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  • DOUGLAS E. BRENNEMAN,

    1. Section on Developmental and Molecular Pharmacology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
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  • JOANNA M. HILL

    Corresponding author
    1. Section on Developmental and Molecular Pharmacology, Laboratory of Developmental Neurobiology, NICHD, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA
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Address for correspondence: J.M. Hill, Ph.D., Section on Developmental and Molecular Pharmacology, LDN, NICHD, NIH, Building 49, 5A-38, MSC 4480, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, Maryland 20892. 301/496-7649 (voice); 301/480-5041 (fax). e-mail: jh39@nih.gov

Abstract

Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) is an identified regulator of growth in the embryonic day (E) 9-11 mouse. Mouse embryonic and extra-embryonic tissues were studied to identify the source of VIP at this critical time. VIP mRNA was detected in the decidua/trophoblast at E8 and declined until E10, after which it was not detectable. VIP mRNA was not apparent in the embryo until E11-E12. At E9, cells in decidua had VIP as well as lymphocyte marker (delta and CD3) immunoreactivity. VIP binding sites were dense in the decidua/trophoblast at E6, which gradually decreased until E10. VIP binding sites were detected in embryonic neuroepithelium by E9. The transient presence of VIP binding sites and mRNA in the decidua/trophoblast correlate with the identified period of VIP growth regulation, when VIP mRNA is absent in the embryo. Therefore, these findings suggest that maternal decidual lymphocytes are the source of VIP that regulate early postimplantation embryonic growth.

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