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Regulation of Mitochondrial Respiration by Oxygen and Nitric Oxide

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Abstract

Abstract: Although the regulation of mitochondrial respiration and energy production in mammalian tissues has been exhaustively studied and extensively reviewed, a clear understanding of the regulation of cellular respiration has not yet been achieved. In particular, the role of tissue pO2 as a factor regulating cellular respiration remains controversial. The concept of a complex and multisite regulation of cellular respiration and energy production signaled by cellular and intercellular messengers has evolved in the last few years and is still being researched. A recent concept that regulation of cellular respiration is regulated by ADP, O2 and NO preserves the notion that energy demands drive respiration but places the kinetic control of both respiration and energy supply in the availability of ADP to F1-ATPase and of O2 and NO to cytochrome oxidase. In addition, recent research indicates that NO participates in redox reactions in the mitochondrial matrix that regulate the intramitochondrial steady state concentration of NO itself and other reactive species such as superoxide radical (O2) and peroxynitrite (ONOO). In this way, NO acquires an essential role as a mitochondrial regulatory metabolite. NO exhibits a rich biochemistry and a high reactivity and plays an important role as intercellular messenger in diverse physiological processes, such as regulation of blood flow, neurotransmission, platelet aggregation and immune cytotoxic response.

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