The advent of helical CT imaging held promise for the early diagnosis, and thereby, for enhanced curability of lung cancer—a highly fatal disease. In 1993, the Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP) was initiated and experimentally screened a cohort of 1,000 high-risk persons. Here we summarize the results of the baseline and annual repeat CT screening of these 1,000 subjects. CT-based screening (compared to traditional radiology) was clearly shown to enhance the detection of lung cancer at earlier and more curable stages. A discussion follows of the meaning of the results and possible future screening protocols.