In Italy, the seat of the Vatican, the problem of the “rights of the embryo” has been particularly felt and has caused bitter debate between laymen and clergy. The disagreement has focused primarily on the definition of “person,”“individual,” and the “beginning of life.” Catholics, for the most part, have contested the concept of the “pre-embryo” and have tried to have a law passed that would impede the production and freezing of supernumerary embryos (according to the hypothesis of the “simple case”). In the same way, Catholics have strongly opposed the possible manipulation of embryos, including pre-implant genetic investigations. In addition to Catholic teachings, the National Committee for Bioethics has also declared itself favorable to the protection of the “waking life.” It published a special document on the theme in a period in which the Committee was composed only of strict Catholics, following action taken by the then Prime Minister, Berlusconi, who believed it necessary to exclude and remove all lay members from the Committee. The document of the National Committee for Bioethics, which distinguishes itself for having declared that “the embryo is one of us,” has been the cause of a transversal political aggregation that has gathered Catholic parliamentarians from different political parties and that has begun a campaign to acknowledge the prerogatives and rights of the embryo which Italian law attributes only to the baby after its birth. An intense debate continues on all these themes, and in back of all this is the warning from the Church to re-examine the Italian law dealing with the voluntary interruption of pregnancy.