• joints;
  • arthritis;
  • inflammation;
  • juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA);
  • juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM);
  • children;
  • magnetic resonance imaging;
  • muscle

The use of MRI in the assessment of the musculoskeletal system in children has important differences from its use in adults. Growth in children has significant impact on the epiphysis and growth plate, which are important structures in the growing child, and there are radiological features that differ from those in adults: disease may alter structures during a period of growth; the pathologies themselves are a distinct group of diseases at variance with adult arthritis and myositis, with a different spectrum of differential diagnoses; and many technical issues are different when imaging a child. These are important considerations in choosing the appropriate imaging. MRI is a powerful and valuable imaging technique in pediatric musculoskeletal pathologies, with considerable potential for future developments to enhance its role in diagnosis, management, and therapeutic intervention for these children.