B cells represent an important link between the adaptive and innate immune systems as they express both antigen-specific B-cell receptors (BCRs) as well as various Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Several checkpoints in B-cell development ensure that self-specific cells are eliminated from the mature B-cell repertoire to avoid harmful autoreactive responses. These checkpoints are controlled by BCR-mediated events but are also influenced by TLR-dependent signals from the innate immune system. Additionally, B-cell-intrinsic and extrinsic TLR signaling are critical for inflammatory events required for the clearance of microbial infections. Factors secreted by TLR-activated macrophages or dendritic cells directly influence the fate of protective and autoreactive B cells. Additionally, naive and memory B cells respond differentially to TLR ligands, as do different B-cell subsets. We review here recent literature describing intrinsic and extrinsic effects of TLR stimulation on the fate of B cells, with particular attention to autoimmune diseases.