SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • 1
    Braveman, P. & S. Egerter. 2008. Overcoming obstacles to health: Report from the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation to the Commission to Build a Healthier America. Robert Wood Johnson, February, 2008.
  • 2
    Mishel, L., J. Bernstein & S. Allegretto. 2007. The State of Working America 2006/2007. An Economic Policy Institute Book. ILR Press, an imprint of Cornell University Press, Ithaca , NY . Retrieved on December 1, 2008 from http://Inequality.org at http://www.stateofworkingamerica.org/tabfig/01/SWA06_Fig1J.gif
  • 3
    U.S. Census Bureau, 2008. Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplements. Retrieved on December 1, 2008 from Inequality.org at http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/income/histinc/f03ar.html
  • 4
    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2000. Healthy People 2010. 2nd edn. Washington , DC .
  • 5
    Healthy People 2010 Midcourse Review; retrieved on August 1, 2008 at http://www.healthypeople.gov/Data/midcourse/html/execsummary/introduction.htm
  • 6
    Braveman, P. 2006. Health disparities and health equity: concepts and measurement. Annu. Rev. Public Health 27: 167194.
  • 7
    Whitehead, M. 1991. The concepts and principles of equity and health. Health Promot. Intl. 6: 217228.
  • 8
    Kawachi, I., N. Daniels & D.E. Robinson. 2005. Health disparities by race and class: why both matter. Health Affairs 24: 343352.
  • 9
    Isaacs, S.L. & S.A. Schroeder. 2004. Class—the ignored determinant of the nation's health. New Engl. J. Med. 351: 11371142.
  • 10
    Liberatos, P., B.G. Link & J.L. Kelsey. 1988. The measurement of social class in epidemiology. Epidemiol. Rev. 10: 87121.
  • 11
    Lynch, J.W., G.A. Kaplan, R.D. Cohen, et al . 1996. Do cardiovascular risk factors explain the relation between socioeconomic status, risk of all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality, and acute myocardial infarction? Am. J. Epidemiol. 144: 934942.
  • 12
    Krieger, N., D.R. Williams & N.E. Moss. 1997. Measuring social class in public health research: concepts, methodologies, and guidelines. Annu. Rev. Public Health 18: 341378.
  • 13
    Farr, W. 1975. Vital statistics: a memorial volume of selections from the reports and writings of William Farr. Introduction by Mervyn Susser and Abraham Adelstein. Scarecrow Press. Metuchen , NJ .
  • 14
    Virchow, R. 1848. Report on the typhus epidemic in Upper Silesia.1848. In Rudolph Virchow: Collected Essays on Public Health and Epidemiology. Rather, I.J. Ed.: 205220. Science Hisotry Publications. Canton , MA .
  • 15
    Durkheim, E.S. 1897 (1951 reprint edition). Free Press, New York , NY .
  • 16
    Engels, F. 1844. The condition of the working class in England. Retrieved on January 15, 2009 at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/condition-working-class/index.htm.
  • 17
    Doyal, L. 1979. The Political Economy of Health. Pluto Press. London .
  • 18
    Link, B.G. & Phelan, J.C. 1986. Editorial: understanding sociodemographic differences in health—the role of fundamental social causes. Am. J. Public Health 86: 471473.
  • 19
    Navarro, V. 1986. Crisis, Health, and Medicine: A Social Critique. Tavistock. New York .
  • 20
    Townsend, P. 1986. Why are the many poor? Intl. J. Health Serv. 16: 132.
  • 21
    Tesh, S.N. 1988. Hidden Arguments: Political Ideology and Disease Prevention Policy. Rutgers, London , UK .
  • 22
    Krieger, N. 2001. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Intl. J. Epidemiol. 30: 66877.
  • 23
    Engel, G.L. 1977. The need for a new medical model. Science 196: 129136.
  • 24
    Antonovsky, A. 1979. Health, Stress and Coping. San Francisco , Jossey-Bass.
  • 25
    Antonovsky, A. 1987. Unravelling the mystery of health. How People Manage Stress and Stay Well. San Francisco , Jossey Bass.
  • 26
    Kitagawa, E.M. & P.M. Hauser. 1973. Differential Mortality in the United States: A Study in Socioeconomic Epidemiology. Harvard University Press. Cambridge .
  • 27
    Black, D., J.N. Morris, C. Smith, et al . 1982. The Black Report (Report of the Working Group on Inequalities). Penguin. London .
  • 28
    Adler, N.E. & J.M. Ostrove. 1999. Socioeconomic status and health: what we know and what we don’t. In Socioeconomic Status and Health in Industrialized Nations: Social, Psychological and Biological Pathways. Adler, N.E., M.Marmot, B.S.McEwen & J.Stewart, Eds.: 315. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896.
  • 29
    Williams, D.R. & C. Collins. 1995. U.S. socioeconomic and racial differences in health: patterns and explanations. Ann. Rev. Sociol. 21: 349386.
  • 30
    Williams, D.R. 1999. Race, socioeconomic status and health: the added effects of racism and discrimination. In Socioeconomic Status and Health in Industrialized Nations: Social, Psychological and Biological Pathways. Adler, N.E., M.Marmot, B.S.McEwen & J.Stewart Eds.: 173188. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896.
  • 31
    Marmot, M.G., M.J. Shipley & F. Rose. 1984. Inequalities in death—specific explanations of a general pattern? Lancet 1: 10031006.
  • 32
    Marmot, M.G., G.D. Smith, S. Stanfeld, et al . 1991. Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Lancet 1: 13871393.
  • 33
    Marmot, M. & E. Brunner. 2005. Cohort profile: the Whitehall II study. Intl. J. Epidemiol. 34: 251256.
  • 34
    Adler, N.E., W.T. Boyce, M.A. Chesney, et al . 1993. Socioeconomic inequalities in health. No easy solution. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 269: 31403145.
  • 35
    Adler, N.E., T. Boyce, M.A. Chesney, et al . 1994. Socioeconomic status and health: the challenge of the gradient. Am. Psychol. 49: 1524.
  • 36
    Marmot, M., C.D. Ryff, L.L. Bumpass, et al . 1997. Social inequalities in health: next questions and converging evidence. Social Sci. Med. 44: 901910.
  • 37
    Pappas, G., S. Queen, W. Hadden, et al . 1993. The increasing disparity in mortality between socioeconomic groups in the United States, 1960 and 1986. New Engl. J. Med. 329: 103109.
  • 38
    McDonough, P., G.J. Duncan, D. Williams, et al. 1997. Income dynamics and adult mortality in the United States, 1972 through 1989. Am. J. Public Health 87: 14761483.
  • 39
    Chen, E., K.A. Matthews & W.T. Boyce. 2002. Socioeconomic differences in children's health: how and why do these relationships change with age? Psychol. Bull. 128: 295329.
  • 40
    Evans, G.W. 2003. A multimethodological analysis of cumulative risk and allostatic load among rural children. Develop. Psychol. 39: 924933.
  • 41
    Evans, G.W. & L.A. Marcynyszyn. 2004. Environmental justice, cumulative environmental risk, and health among low- and middle-income children in upstate New York. Am. J. Public Health 94: 19421944.
  • 42
    Bauman, L.J., R.E.K. Stein & E.J. Silver. 2006. Cumulative social disadvantage and child health. Pediatrics 117: 13211328.
  • 43
    Minkler, M., E. Fuller-Thomson & J. Guralnik. 2006. Gradient of disability across the SES spectrum. New Engl. J. Med. 355: 4351.
  • 44
    Wise, P.H., M. Kotelchuck, M.L. Wilson, et al . 1985. Racial and socioeconomic disparities in childhood mortality in Boston. New Engl. J. Med. 313: 360366.
  • 45
    West, P. 1997. Health inequalities in the early years: is there equalization in youth? Social Sci. Med. 44: 833858.
  • 46
    Case, A., D. Lubotsky & C. Paxson. 2002. Socioeconomic status and health in childhood: the origins of the gradient. Am. Econ. Rev. 92: 13081344.
  • 47
    Chen, E., A.D. Martin & K.A. Matthews. 2007. Issues in exploring variation in childhood socioeconomic gradients by age: a response to Case, Paxson, and Vogl. Social Sci. Med. 64: 762764.
  • 48
    Case, A., C. Paxson & T. Vogl. 2007. Socioeconomic status and health in childhood: a comment on Chen, Martin and Matthews, “Socioeconomic status and health: Do gradients differ within childhood and adolescence?” (62:0, 2006, 2161–2170). Social Sci. Med. 64: 757761.
  • 49
    Smith, J.P. 1999. Healthy bodies and thick wallets: the dual relationship between health and economic status. J. Econ. Perspect. 13: 145166.
  • 50
    Smith, J.P. 2004. Unraveling the SES-health connection. Populat. Develop. Rev.: Aging, Health Public Policy 30: 108132.
  • 51
    Kramer, M.S., L. Seguin, J. Lydon, et al . 2000. Socio-economic disparities in pregnancy outcome: why do the poor fare so poorly? Paediatr. Perinat. Epidemiol. 14: 194210.
  • 52
    Case, A., A. Fertig & C. Paxson. 2005. The lasting impact of childhood health and circumstance. J. Health Econ. 24: 365389.
  • 53
    Haveman, R. 1987. Poverty research and the social sciences. Article extracted from Poverty Policy and Poverty Research 1965–1980. University of Minnesota Press. Retrieved on January 12, 2009 at http://www.irp.wisc.edu/publications/focus/pdfs/foc92b.pdf.
  • 54
    Baron, R.M. & D.A. Kenny. 1986. The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. J. Pers. Social Psychol. 51: 11731182.
  • 55
    Kraemer, H.C., E. Stice, A. Kazdin, et al . 2001. How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. Am. J. Psychiat. 158: 848856.
  • 56
    Lynch, J.W., G. Davey Smith, G.A. Kaplan, et al . 2000. Income inequality and mortality: importance to health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions. BMJ 320: 12001236.
  • 57
    Wilkinson, R.G. 1999. Health, hierarchy and social anxiety. In Socioeconomic Status and Health in Industrialized Nations: Social, Psychological and Biological Pathways. Adler, N.E., M.Marmot, B.S.McEwen & J.Stewart Eds.: 4863. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896.
  • 58
    Lachman, M.E. & S.L. Weaver. 1988. The sense of control as a moderator of social class differences in health and well-being. J. Pers. Social Psychol. 74: 763773.
  • 59
    Holahan, J. & N. Brennan. 2007. Who are the adult uninsured? New Federalism: National Survey of America's Families. Retrieved January 15, 2008 at http://www.urban.org/publications/309526.html.
  • 60
    Andrulis, D.P. 1998. Access to care is the centerpiece in the elimination of socioeconomic disparities in health. Ann. Internal Med. 129: 412416.
  • 61
    Reichman, N.E. & M.J. Florio. 1996. The effects of enriched prenatal care services on Medicaid birth outcomes in New Jersey. J. Health Econ. 15: 45576.
  • 62
    Hypertension Detection & Follow-up Program Cooperative Group. 1987. Educational level and 5-year all-cause mortality in the Hypertension Detection and Follow-up Program. Hypertension 9: 641646.
  • 63
    McGinnis, M.J., P. Williams-Russo & J.R. Knickman. 2002. The case for more active policy attention to health promotion. Health Affairs 21: 7893.
  • 64
    Frenk, J. 1998. Medical care and health improvement: the critical link. Ann. Internal Med. 129: 419420.
  • 65
    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 1998. Guidance for Incorporating Environmental Justice Concerns in EPA's NEPA Compliance Analyses. Office of Federal Activities, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Washington , DC .
  • 66
    Evans, G.W. & E. Kantrowitz. 2002. Socioeconomic status and health: the potential role of environmental risk exposure. Annu. Rev. Public health 23: 303331.
  • 67
    Mokdad, A.H., J.S. Marks, D.F. Stroup, et al . 2004. Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA 291: 12381245.
  • 68
    Cook, D.G. & D.P. Strachan. 1997. Health effects of passive smoking: parental smoking and prevalence of respiratory symptoms and asthma in school age children. Thorax. 52: 10811094.
  • 69
    Barnoya, J. & S.A. Glantz. 2005. Cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke: nearly as big as smoking. Circulation 111: 26842698.
  • 70
    Den Exter Blokland, E.A.W., R.C.M.E. Engels., W.W. Hale, et al . 2004. Lifetime parental smoking history and cessation and early adolescent smoking behavior. Prev. Med. 38: 359368.
  • 71
    McTigue, K., J.C. Larson, A. Valoski, et al . 2006. Mortality and cardiac and vascular outcomes in extremely obese women. The Journal of the American Medical Association 296: 7986.
  • 72
    Moghaddam, A.A., M. Woodward & R. Huxley. 2007. Obesity and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of 31 studies with 70,000 events. Cancer Epidemiol. Biomark. Prev. 16: 25332547.
  • 73
    Mokdad, A.H., B.A. Bowman, E.S. Ford, et al . 2001. The continuing epidemics of obesity and diabetes in the United States. JAMA 286: 11951200.
  • 74
    Must, A., J. Spadano, E.H. Coakley, et al . 1999. The disease burden associated with overweight and obesity. JAMA 282: 15231529.
  • 75
    Manson, J.E., S.S. Bassuk, F.B. Hu, et al . 2007. Estimating the number of deaths due to obesity: can the divergent findings be reconciled? J. Woman's Health 16: 168176.
  • 76
    Wang, Y. & M.A. Beydoun. 2007. The obesity epidemic in the United States—gender, age, socioeconomic, racial/ethnic, and geographic characteristics: a systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Epidemiol. Rev. 29: 628.
  • 77
    Holmes, T.H. & R.H. Rahe. 1967. The social readjustment rating scale. J. Psychosom. Res. 11: 213218.
  • 78
    Goldberg, E.L. & G.W. Comstock. 1980. Epidemiology of life events: frequency in general populations. Am. J. Epidemiol. 111: 736752.
  • 79
    Lazarus, R.S. & S. Folkman. 1984. Stress, Appraisal, and Coping. Springer. New York .
  • 80
    Selye, H. 1956. The Stress of Life. MacGraw-Hill. New York .
  • 81
    Segerstrom, S.C. & G.E. Miller. 2004. Psychological stress and the human immune system: a meta-analytic study of 30 years of inquiry. Psychol. Bull. 130: 60130.
  • 82
    Ranjit, N., A.V. Diez-Roux, S. Shea, et al . 2007. Socioeconomic position, race/ethnicity, and inflammation in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Circulation 116: 23832390.
  • 83
    Miller, G.E., E. Chen, J. Sze, et al . 2008. A functional genomic fingerprint of chronic stress in humans: blunted glucocorticoid and increased NF-kappaB signaling. Biol. Psychiatry 64: 263265.
  • 84
    Salpolsky, R.M. 1998. Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers. 2nd edn. W.H. Freeman & Company. New York.
  • 85
    Steptoe, A. & P.J. Feldman. 2001. Neighborhood problems as sources of chronic stress: development of a measure of neighborhood problems and associations with socioeconomic status and health. Ann. Behav. Med. 23: 177185.
  • 86
    Feldman, P.J. & A. Steptoe. 2004. How neighborhoods and physical functioning are related: the roles of neighborhood socioeconomic status, perceived neighborhood strain, and individual health risk factors. Ann. Behav. Med. 27: 9199.
  • 87
    Ferrie, J., M.J. Shipley, S.A. Stansfeld, et al . 2002. Effects of chronic job insecurity and change in job security on self-reported health, minor psychiatric morbidity, physiological measures, and health-related behaviours in British civil servants: The Whitehall II study. J. Epidemiol. Community Health 56: 450454.
  • 88
    Bobak, M. & M. Marmot. 1996. East-West mortality divide and its potential explanations: proposed research agenda. BMJ 312: 421425.
  • 89
    Larsson, B., J. Seidell, K. Svardsudd, et al . 1989. Obesity, adipose tissue distribution and health in men—the study of men born in 1913. Appetite 13: 3744.
  • 90
    Brunner, E., J.T. Chandola & M.G. Marmot. 2007. Prospective effect of job strain on general and central obesity in the Whitehall II study. Am. J. Epidemiol. 165: 828837.
  • 91
    Gianaros, P.J., J.R. Jennings, L.K. Sheu., et al . 2007. Prospective reports of chronic life stress predict decreased grey matter volume in the hippocampus. NeuroImage 35: 795803.
  • 92
    Epel, E.S., E.H. Blackburn, J. Lin, et al . 2004. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 1731217315.
  • 93
    McEwen, B.S. 1998. Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New Engl. J. Med. 338: 171179.
  • 94
    McEwen, B.S. & T. Seeman. 1999. Protective and damaging effects of mediators of stress: elaborating and testing the concepts of allostasis and allostatic load. In Socioeconomic Status and Health in Industrialized Nations: Social, Psychological and Biological Pathways. Adler, N.E., M.Marmot, B.S.McEwen, B.S.  & J.Stewart, Eds.: 3047. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 896.
  • 95
    Singer, B., Ryff, C.D. & Seeman, T. 2004. Operationalizing allostatic load. In Allostasis, Homeostasis, and the Costs of Physiological Adaptation. Schulkin, J. Ed.: 11131149. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , Massachusetts .
  • 96
    Seeman, T.E., E. Crimmins, M. Huang, et al . 2004. Cumulative biological risk and socio-economic differences in mortality: MacArthur studies of successful aging. Social Sci. Med. 58: 19851997.
  • 97
    Karlamangla, A.S., B.H. Singer, D.R. Williams, et al . 2005. Impact of socioeconomic status on longitudinal accumulation of cardiovascular risk in young adults: The CARDIA Study (USA). Social Sci. Med. 60: 9991015.
  • 98
    Geronimus, A.T. 1992. The weathering hypothesis and the health of African-American women and infants: evidence and speculations. Ethn. Dispar. 2: 20721.
  • 99
    Geronimus, A.T., M. Hicken, D. Keene, J. Bound. 2006. “Weathering” and age patterns of allostatic load scores among Blacks and Whites in the United States. Am. J. Public Health 96: 826833.
  • 100
    Blackburn, E.H., C.W. Greider & J.W. Szostak. 2006. Telomeres and telomerase: the path from maize, Tetrahymena and yeast to human cancer and aging. Nature Med. 12: 11331138.
  • 101
    Cawthon, R.M., K.R. Smith, E. O’Brien, et al . 2003. Association between telomere length in blood and mortality in people aged 60 years or older. Lancet 361: 393395.
  • 102
    Cherkas, L.F., A. Aviv, A.M. Valdes, et al . 2006. The effects of social status on biological aging as measured by white-blood-cell telomere length. Aging cell 5: 361365.
  • 103
    Barker, D.J.P. 1995. Fetal origins of coronary heart disease. BMJ 311: 171174.
  • 104
    Leon, D. & Y. Ben-Shlomo. 1997. Preadult influences on cardiovascular disease and cancer. In A Life Course Approach to Chronic Disease Epidemiology. Kuh, D. & Y.Ben-Shlomo Eds.: Oxford Medical Publications, Oxford .
  • 105
    Chen, E., D.A. Langer, Y.E. Raphaelson, et al . 2004. Socioeconomic status and health in adolescents: the role of stress interpretations. Child Develop. 75: 10391052.
  • 106
    Diez Roux, A.V. 2000. Multilevel analysis in public health research. Annu. Rev. Public Health 21: 171192.
  • 107
    Diez Roux, A., F.J. Nieto, C. Muntaner, et al . 1997. Neighborhood environments and coronary heart disease: a multilevel analysis. Am. J. Epidemiol. 146: 4863.
  • 108
    Yen, I.H. & S.L. Kaplan. 1999. The social environment and health: a discussion of the epidemiologic literature. Annu. Rev. Public Health 20: 287308.
  • 109
    O’Campo, P., X. Lue, M. Wang, et al . 1997. Neighborhood risk factors for low birthweight in Baltimore: a multilevel analysis. Am. J. Public Health 87: 11131118.
  • 110
    Estabrooks, P.A., R.E. Lee & N.C. Gyurcsik. 2003. Resources for physical activity participation: does availability and accessibility differ by neighborhood socioeconomic status? Ann. Behav. Med. 25: 100104.
  • 111
    Morland, K., S. Wing, A. Diez Roux, et al . 2001. Neighborhood characteristics associated with the location of food stores and food service places. Am. J. Prev. Med. 22: 2329.
  • 112
    Powell, L.M. 2007. Food store availability and neighborhood characteristics in the United States. Prev. Med. 44: 189195.
  • 113
    Roman, C.G. & A. Chalfin. 2008. Fear of walking outdoors: a multilevel ecologic analysis of crime and disorder. Am. J. Prev. Med. 34: 306312.
  • 114
    Adler, N.E. & J. Stewart. 2009. Reducing obesity: motivating action while not blaming the victim. Milbank Q. 87: 4970.
  • 115
    Winkleby, M., C. Cubbin & D. Ahn. 2006. Effect of cross-level interaction between individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status on adult mortality rates. Am. J. Public Health 96: 21452153.
  • 116
    Veugelers, P.J., A.M. Yip & G. Kephart. 2001. Proximate and contextual socioeconomic determinants of mortality: multilevel approaches in a setting with universal health care coverage. Am. J. Epidemiol. 154: 725732.
  • 117
    Roos, L.L., J. Magoon, S. Gupta, et al . 2004. Socioeconomic determinants of mortality in two Canadian provinces: multilevel modeling and neighborhood context. Social Sci. Med. 59: 14351447.
  • 118
    Borrell, L.N., A.V. Diez Roux, K. Rose, et al . 2004. Neighbourhood characteristics and mortality in the Artherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Intl. J. Epidemiol. 33: 398407.
  • 119
    Subramaian, S.V., J.T. Chen, D. Rehkopf, et al . 2005. Racial disparities in context: a multilevel analysis of neighborhood variations in poverty and excess mortality among black populations in Massachusetts. Am. J. Public Health 95: 260265.
  • 120
    Chen, E., A.D. Martin & K.A. Matthews. 2006. Understanding health disparities: the role of race and socioeconomic status in children's health. Am. J. Public Health 96: 702708.
  • 121
    Boyce, W.T., M. Champoux, S.J. Suomi, et al . 1995. Salivary cortisol in nursery-reared rhesus monkeys: reactivity to peer interactions and altered circadian activity. Develop. Psychobiol. 28: 257267.
  • 122
    Boyce, W.T. & B.J. Ellis. 2005. Biological sensitivity to context. I. An evolutionary-developmental theory of the origins and functions of stress reactivity. Develop. Psychopathol. 17: 271301.
  • 123
    Caspi, A., K. Sugden, T.E. Moffitt, et al . 2003. Influence of life stress on depression: moderation by a polymorphism in the 5-HTT gene. Science 301: 386389.
  • 124
    Taylor, S. E, B.M. Way, W.T. Welch, et al . 2006. Early family environment, current adversity, the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, and depressive symptomatology. Biol. Psychiatry 60: 671676.
  • 125
    Meaney, M. 2001. Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across eras. Ann. Rev. Neurosci. 24: 11611192.
  • 126
    Galea, S., C. Hall & G.A. Kaplan. 2009. Social epidemiology and complex system dynamic modeling as applied to health behaviour and drug use research. Intl. J. Drug Policy 20: 209216.
  • 127
    Diez Roux, A.V. 2007. Integrating social and biologic factors in health research: a systems view. Ann. Epidemiol. 17: 569574.
  • 128
    Adler, N.E. & D.H. Rehkopf. 2008. U.S. disparities in health: descriptions, causes and mechanisms. Annu. Rev. Public Health 29: 235252.
  • 129
    Haas, S.A. 2006. Health selection and the process of social stratification: the effect of childhood health on socioeconomic attainment. J. Health Soc. Behav. 47: 339354.
  • 130
    Benezeval, M. & K. Judge. 2001. Income and health: the time dimension. Soc. Sci. Med. 52: 13711390.
  • 131
    Snyder, S.E. & W.N. Evans. 2006. The effect of income on mortality: evidence from the social security notch. Rev. Econ. Stat. 88: 482495.
  • 132
    Frijters, P. 2005. The causal effect of income on health: evidence from German reunification. J. Health Econ. 24: 9971017.
  • 133
    Williams, D.R., M.V. Costa, A.O. Odunlami, et al . 2008. Moving upstream: how interventions that address the social determinants of health can improve health and reduce disparities. J. Public Health Manage. Practice November/Supplement: S8S17.