See Dell et al.16 for a discussion of the monophyletic or diphyletic origins of chiropterans.
Neocortical neuron morphology in Afrotheria: comparing the rock hyrax with the African elephant
Article first published online: 28 APR 2011
© 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume 1225, New Perspectives on Neurobehavioral Evolution pages 37–46, April 2011
How to Cite
Bianchi, S., Bauernfeind, A. L., Gupta, K., Stimpson, C. D., Spocter, M. A., Bonar, C. J., Manger, P. R., Hof, P. R., Jacobs, B. and Sherwood, C. C. (2011), Neocortical neuron morphology in Afrotheria: comparing the rock hyrax with the African elephant. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1225: 37–46. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.05991.x
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2011
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2011
- rock hyrax;
The mammalian neocortex contains a great variety of neuronal types. In particular, recent studies have shown substantial morphological diversity among spiny projecting neurons in species that diverged close to the base of the mammalian radiation (e.g., monotremes, afrotherians, and xenarthrans). Here, we used a Golgi technique to examine different neuronal morphologies in an afrotherian species, the rock hyrax (Procavia capensis), and provide a comparison with the related African elephant (Loxodonta africana). Results showed that spiny neurons in the rock hyrax neocortex exhibit less morphological variation than in elephants, displaying a higher frequency of relatively “typical” pyramidal neurons. A quantitative comparison of rock hyrax pyramidal neuron morphology between frontal and visual areas, moreover, revealed greater spine density of neurons in frontal cortex, but no differences in other morphological aspects. Regional variations in pyramidal structure have also been observed in the African elephant, as well as a number of primate species.