The von Economo neurons in the frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortex
Article first published online: 28 APR 2011
© 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume 1225, New Perspectives on Neurobehavioral Evolution pages 59–71, April 2011
How to Cite
Allman, J. M., Tetreault, N. A., Hakeem, A. Y., Manaye, K. F., Semendeferi, K., Erwin, J. M., Park, S., Goubert, V. and Hof, P. R. (2011), The von Economo neurons in the frontoinsular and anterior cingulate cortex. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1225: 59–71. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2011.06011.x
- Issue published online: 28 APR 2011
- Article first published online: 28 APR 2011
- frontotemporal dementia;
- hemispheric specialization
The von Economo neurons (VENs) are large bipolar neurons located in the frontoinsular cortex (FI) and limbic anterior (LA) area in great apes and humans but not in other primates. Our stereological counts of VENs in FI and LA show them to be more numerous in humans than in apes. In humans, small numbers of VENs appear the 36th week postconception, with numbers increasing during the first 8 months after birth. There are significantly more VENs in the right hemisphere in postnatal brains; this may be related to asymmetries in the autonomic nervous system. VENs are also present in elephants and whales and may be a specialization related to very large brain size. The large size and simple dendritic structure of these projection neurons suggest that they rapidly send basic information from FI and LA to other parts of the brain, while slower neighboring pyramids send more detailed information. Selective destruction of VENs in early stages of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) implies that they are involved in empathy, social awareness, and self-control, consistent with evidence from functional imaging.