Feedback inhibition of osteoclastogenesis during inflammation by IL-10, M-CSF receptor shedding, and induction of IRF8

Authors


Lionel B. Ivashkiv, Hospital for Special Surgery, 535 East 70th Street, New York, NY 10021. ivashkivl@hss.edu

Abstract

Inflammation plays a key role in excessive bone loss in conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. An important paradigm in immunology is that inflammatory factors activate feedback inhibition mechanisms to restrain inflammation and limit associated tissue damage. We hypothesized that inflammatory factors would activate similar feedback mechanisms to restrain bone loss in inflammatory settings. We have identified three mechanisms that inhibit osteoclastogenesis and are induced by inflammatory factors such as toll-like receptor ligands and cytokines; downregulation of expression of costimulatory molecules such as TREM-2; induction of shedding, and thereby inactivation of the M-CSF receptor c-Fms, leading to decreased RANK transcription; and induction of transcriptional repressors such as interferon regulatory factor 8. It is likely that these mechanisms work in a complementary and cooperative manner to fine tune the extent of osteoclastogenesis in inflammatory settings, and their augmentation may represent an alternative therapeutic approach to suppress bone resorption.

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