• Open Access

Central nervous control of energy and glucose balance: focus on the central melanocortin system


Yong Xu, Ph.D., M.D., Children's Nutrition Research Center, Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, Houston, TX 77030. yongx@bcm.edu. Makoto Fukuda, Ph.D., Division of Hypothalamic Research, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, 5323 Harry Hines Boulevard, Dallas, TX 75390-9077. Makato. Fukuda@UTSouthwestern.edu


Studies have suggested that manipulations of the central melanocortin circuitry by pharmacological agents produce robust effects on the regulation of body weight and glucose homeostasis. In this review, we discuss recent findings from genetic mouse models that have further established the physiological relevance of this circuitry in the context of glucose and energy balance. In addition, we will discuss distinct neuronal populations that respond to central melanocortins to regulate food intake, energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity, and insulin secretion, respectively. Finally, multiple hormonal and neural cues (e.g., leptin, estrogen, and serotonin) that use the melanocortin systems to regulate energy and glucose homeostasis will be reviewed. These findings suggest that targeting the specific branches of melanocortin circuits may be potential avenues to combat the current obesity and diabetes epidemics.