Barrier dysfunction and bacterial uptake in the follicle-associated epithelium of ileal Crohn's disease

Authors

  • Åsa V. Keita,

    1. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
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  • Johan D. Söderholm

    1. Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    2. Department of Surgery, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden
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Åsa V. Keita, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, 58183, Linköping, Sweden. asa.keita@liu.se

Abstract

The ability to control uptake across the mucosa and protect from harmful substances in the gut lumen is defined as intestinal barrier function. The etiology of Crohn's disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, and immunological factors all contribute. The frontline between these factors lies in the intestinal barrier. The most important inflammation-driving environmental factor in Crohn's disease is the microbiota, where Esherichia coli strains have been assigned a key role. The first observable signs of Crohn's disease are small aphtoid ulcers over Peyer's patches and lymphoid follicles. The overlaying follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) is specialized for luminal sampling and is an entry site for antigens and bacteria. We have demonstrated increased E. coli uptake across the FAE in Crohn's disease, which may initiate inflammation. This short review will discuss barrier dysfunction and bacteria in the context of ileal Crohn's disease, and how the FAE might be the site of initial inflammation.

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