Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength, is a multifactorial impaired state of health. Lifestyle habits such as physical activity and nutrition have a major impact on sarcopenia progression. Several epidemiological studies have also shown an association between cigarette smoking and increased levels of sarcopenia in elderly long-time smokers. Clinical, in vivo, and in vitro studies have tried to investigate the mechanism behind exposure to cigarette smoke (CS) and the subsequent effects on skeletal muscles. The aim of this review is to present a cellular model of CS-induced skeletal muscle protein breakdown based on recent studies dealing with this issue and to propose new potential research directions that may explain the effects of exposure to CS on skeletal muscle integrity.