Experimental basis for discriminating between thermal and athermal effects of water-filtered infrared A irradiation
Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012
© 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Volume 1259, Environmental Stressors in Biology and Medicine pages 33–38, July 2012
How to Cite
Jung, T. and Grune, T. (2012), Experimental basis for discriminating between thermal and athermal effects of water-filtered infrared A irradiation. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1259: 33–38. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06581.x
- Issue published online: 3 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 3 JUL 2012
- water-filtered infrared A (wIRA);
- single cells;
- thermal effects;
- athermal effects;
- water cooling;
- air cooling
Considering the widespread application of water-filtered infrared A (wIRA) irradiation in medicine, cosmetics, and wellness, we have conluded that the biological effects of this electromagnetic spectrum, ranging from 780 nm to 1400 nm, have become an important focus of experimental research. Two main effects of wIRA on single cells are discussed: thermal effects, caused by absorption of energy by cellular water and the aqueous medium surrounding the irradiated sample that result in warming, and supposed athermal effects that result from a direct interaction of wIRA with cellular molecules/structures excluding water. In the following, we discuss different experimental setups and highlight some cellular responses to thermal and athermal wIRA effects, as well as the experimental problems in differentiating between them.