The University of Arizona's work in controlled-environment agriculture is reviewed, followed by discussions of their contemporary modifications of these techniques in controlled-environment aquaculture. Open and closed systems of agriculture have been designed, constructed and operated by the University in desert regions of Arabia and North America to obtain high yields of superior quality crops while greatly reducing water usage. This required the development of innovative and cost-efficient construction techniques and simplified systems to control temperature and other environmental variables. Similar systems for controlled-environment aquaculture are discussed, including the new University applications in shrimp culture. Techniques of construction and operation are reviewed and evaluated, particularly in relation to the major problems of maintaining appropriate water quality in confined systems enriched by large populations of animals and frequent introduction of artificial feeds.