USDA/ARS Catfish Genetics Research Unit, P.O. Box 38, Stoneville, Mississippi 38776 USA.
Effect of Total Water Hardness and Chloride on Survival, Growth, and Feed Conversion of Juvenile Red Drum Sciaenops ocellatus
Article first published online: 3 APR 2007
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society
Volume 25, Issue 3, pages 448–453, September 1994
How to Cite
Pursley, M. G. and Wolters, W. R. (1994), Effect of Total Water Hardness and Chloride on Survival, Growth, and Feed Conversion of Juvenile Red Drum Sciaenops ocellatus. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society, 25: 448–453. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-7345.1994.tb00229.x
- Issue published online: 3 APR 2007
- Article first published online: 3 APR 2007
Juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus were tank-reared in two, separate 30-d trials to assess effects of total water hardness and chloride concentratlon on growth, survival, and feed conversion. Two levels of total hardness and chloride were used in 2 × 2 factorial designs to obtain total hardness and chloride levels in trial one of 100 and 200mg/L CaCO3 and 125 and 250mg/L Cl−, and hardness and chloride levels of 100 and 400mg/L CaCO3 and 150 and 500mg/L Cl− in trial two. In trial one, average daily growth and feed conversion were significantly (P≤ 0.05) improved at 100mg/L hardness levels compared to 200mg/L at both chloride levels. Average daily growth was 0.11 ± 0.02g/d at 100mg/L hardness and 125mg/L Cl− compared to 0.06 ± 0.01g/d at 200 mg/L hardness and 125mg/L chlorides. No significant (P≥ 0.05) difference in survival could be attributed to levels of total hardness or chloride. In trial two, 500 mg/L Cl− treatments produced significantly (P≤ 0.01) better growth, survival and feed conversion than 150mg/L Cl− at either level of total hardness (100 and 400mg/L). Survival at 150mg/L chloride and 100mg/L hardness was 48.8 ± 18.7%, while at 500mg/L chloride and 400mg/L hardness survival increased to 96.6 ± 2.1%. Growth also increased from 0.14 ± 0.03 to 0.27 ± 0.01g/d and feed conversion improved from 5.77 ± 1.56 to 1.87 ± 0.06 at the same levels. No interactions between levels of hardness or chlorides were shown to affect red drum growth, survival, or feed conversion in either trial.