Creationist opposition to modern evolutionary and geological sciences derives from the attempt of American Protestant fundamentalists to protect the inerrancy of the Bible from the challenges of any and all historical sciences. Creation science is not an independent investigation of the natural world, but rather biblical testimony. Intelligent design, the latest variant of creationism, is better understood as a legal strategy rather than as genuine science. The creation–evolution controversy is at bottom a conflict over the status and authority of the Bible in the modern world. The Creationism with which this article is concerned is the antihistorical ideology associated with American Protestant fundamentalism. This article is divided into four sections: creationism in early fundamentalism, young-earth creationism, creation science, and intelligent design.