The following syllabus could be adopted for an advanced undergraduate or graduate seminar on religion in the Dead Sea Scrolls. It seeks to introduce students to both the primary texts and their modern scholarly discussion. Each section could be divided into several class sessions as the instructor sees fit. Additional articles listed would be well-suited for a graduate seminar.
Wise, Michael, Abegg, Martin Jr, & Cook, Edward, 2005, The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation, 2nd edn, Harper San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
- • page numbers for this volume are provided in parentheses following primary texts.
- • students should read the introduction to each text when first encountered.
Schiffman, Lawrence H., 1995, Reclaiming the Dead Sea Scrolls: The History of Judaism, the Background of Christianity, the Lost Library of Qumran, ABRL, Doubleday, Garden City, NY.
Another helpful reference tool is:
Schiffman, Lawrence H., & VanderKam, James C., (eds.), 2000, Encyclopedia of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
Part One: Introduction
1. The Library of Qumran
Dimant, Devorah, 2000, ‘The Library of Qumran: Its Content and Character’, in LH Schiffman, E Tov and JC VanderKam (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls Fifty Years after Their Discovery: Proceeding of the Jerusalem Congress, July 20–25, 1997, Israel Exploration Society, the Shrine of the Book, Israel Museum, Jerusalem, Israel.
Newsom, Carol A., 1990, ‘“Sectually Explicit” Literature from Qumran’, in WH Propp, B Halpern and DN Freedman (eds.), The Hebrew Bible and Its Interpreters. Eisenbrauns, Winona Lake, IN.
2. The Archaeology of Qumran
Browse through the Qumran Visualization Project at http://www.nelc.ucla.edu/qumran/
3. The Historical Background
Wise, Michael, Abegg, Martin Jr, & Cook, Edward, 2005, ‘Reading a Dead Sea Scroll’, in The Dead Sea Scrolls: A New Translation, 2nd edn, pp. 38–45, Harper San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
4. The Origins and Identity of the Qumran Community
CD 1–2 (51–54); 1QS 8–9 (128–132); 4QMMT (454–462)
Schiffman, 83–95, 113–26.
García Martínez, Florentino, 1990, ‘A “Groningen” Hypothesis of Qumran Origins and Early History’, Revue de Qumran, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 521–541.
Collins, John J., 2006, ‘The Yahad and the “Qumran Community”’, in C Hempel and JH Lieu (eds.), Biblical Traditions in Transmission: Essays in Honour of Michael A. Knibb, E. J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Part Two: Religion in Practice in the Dead Sea Scrolls
5. Progressive Revelation and the Formation of Jewish Law
Idea of progressive revelation: 1QS 5:7–13 (122–23); CD 3:12–16 (54)
Sabbath laws: CD 10:17–11:18 (21–22)
Shemesh, Aharon, & Werman, Cana, 2003, ‘Halakhah at Qumran: Genre and Authority’, Dead Sea Discoveries, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 104–29.
Jassen, Alex P., 2008, ‘The Presentation of the Prophets as Lawgivers at Qumran’, Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 307–37.
6. The Qumran Community and the Temple Cult
On the defiled Temple: 1QpHab 8:8–13 (85); 12:7–17 (88); CD 4:14–18 (55); 6:13–16 (57)
Sectarian Temple laws: review 4QMMT (454–462) with emphasis on Section B
Baumgarten, Joseph, 1977, ‘Sacrifice and Worship among the Jewish Sectarians of the Dead Sea (Qumran) Scrolls’, in Studies in Qumran Law, SJLA 24, E. J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Kugler, Robert, 2000, ‘Rewriting Rubrics: Sacrifice and the Religion of Qumran’, in JJ Collins and RA Kugler (eds.), Religion in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.
7. Prayer at Qumran
Prayer and sacrifice: 1QS 9:26–10:16 (132–33)
Community as Temple; 4Q174 1 (253–256)
Prayer texts: 4Q503 (520–521); 4Q504 (522–26)
Schuller, Eileen M., 2001, ‘Worship, Temple, and Prayer in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in J Neusner, AJ Avery-Peck and B Chilton (eds.), Judaism in Late Antiquity 5,1: The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Theory of Israel, HdO 56, E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Chazon, Esther G., 1998, ‘Hymns and Prayers in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in JC VanderKam and PW Flint (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls after Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment, Vol. 1, E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
8. Ritual and Purity
Communal initiation rites and purity: 1QS 6:13–23 (125–126)
On Tebul Yom: 4QMMT B 13–16 (456), 65–72 (459); 11Q19 45:7–12 (614); 49:19–21 (618); 51:4–5 (619)
Harrington, Hannah K., 2006, ‘Purity and the Dead Sea Scrolls – Current Issues’, Currents in Biblical Research, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 397–428.
Regev, Eyal, 2003, ‘Abominated Temple and a Holy Community: The Formation of the Notions of Purity and Impurity in Qumran’, Dead Sea Discoveries, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 243–78.
Part Three: Religion in Thought
9. God and Angels
God: 11QPsa 26 (576); 1QM 10:12–15 (156–157); 1:8–10 (148)
Angels: Songs of the Sabbath Sacrifice (462–475) songs 1, 6, 7, 9, 12
Schiffman, 145–57, 355–62.
Cook, Edward M., 2000, ‘What Did the Jews of Qumran Know about God and How Did They Know It’, in J. Neusner, A. J. Avery-Peck and B. Chilton (eds.), Judaism in Late Antiquity 5,2: The Judaism of Qumran: A Systemic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls: World View, Comparing Judaisms, HdO 57. E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Collins, John J., 2000, ‘Powers in Heaven: God, Gods, and Angels in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in JJ Collins and RA Kugler (eds.), Religion in the Dead Sea Scrolls, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.
10. Dualism and Predestination
Dualism: 1QS 3:13–4:26 (120–22)
Predestination: 1QS 3:15–17 (120); 1QH 9:7–34 (178–179); 20:8–11 (198); CD 2:7–10 (53)
Dimant, Devorah, 1998, ‘Dualism at Qumran: New Perspectives’, in JH Charlesworth (ed.), Caves of Enlightenment; Proceedings of the American Schools of Oriental Research Dead Sea Scrolls Jubilee Symposium (1947–1997), Bibal Press, North Richland Hills, TX.
Alexander, Philip S., 2006, ‘Predestination and Free Will in the Theology of the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in JMG Barclay and SJ Gathercole (eds.), Divine and Human Agency in Paul and His Cultural Environment, T&T Clark, London, UK.
11. Eschatology and the End of Days
Eschatology: 1QpHab 2:9–10 (81), 7:10–14 (84–85); 1QSb (136–140)
The Eschatological War: 1QM 1–2 (146–150)
Schiffman, 223–41, 329–39.
Collins, John J., 1997, ‘The Expectation of the End in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in CA Evans and PW Flint (eds.), Eschatology, Messianism and the Dead Sea Scrolls, Eerdmans, Grand Rapids, MI.
Knibb, Michael A., ‘Eschatology and Messianism in the Dead Sea Scrolls’, in PW Flint and JC VanderKam (eds.), The Dead Sea Scrolls After Fifty Years: A Comprehensive Assessment, Vol. 2, E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
4Q175 (258–260); 1QS 9:11 (143); 1QSb 5:20–29 (143); 4Q285 (368–71)
Beall, Todd S., 2001, ‘History and Eschatology at Qumran: Messiah’, in AJ Avery-Peck, J Neusner and BD Chilton (eds.), Judaism in Late Antiquity 5,2: The Judaism of Qumran: A Systematic Reading of the Dead Sea Scrolls, HdO 57, E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.
Collins, John J., 1994, ‘The Works of the Messiah’, Dead Sea Discoveries, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 98–112.
1QS 4:6–8 (121); 4Q521 (530–32); 4Q385 2 + 3 (448)
Puech, Emile, 1994, ‘Messianism, Resurrection, and Eschatology at Qumran and the New Testament’, in E Ulrich and J VanderKam (eds.), The Community of the Renewed Covenant: The Notre Dame Symposium on the Dead Sea Scrolls, CJAS 10, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN.
Davies, Philip R., 2000, ‘Death, Resurrection, and Life after Death in the Qumran Scrolls’, in AJ Avery-Peck and J Neusner (eds.), Judaism in Late Antiquity. Part IV, E.J. Brill, Leiden, The Netherlands.