Today more than ever, being climate literate is a critical skill and knowledge area that influences our interaction with the environment around us, our understanding of scientific news and the daily decisions that we make. Yet, the term climate literacy can be misunderstood, as are the terms weather, climate and climate variability. This article surveys the existing literature and highlights six challenges to achieving a climate literate citizenry in both formal and informal or lifelong learning. The lessons learned from high school and undergraduate students, teachers and lifelong learners, many of whom are retired, serve as the threads which are woven into a tapestry of strategies for embedding climate science principles across entire school curricula as well as society at large.