• 1
    Wong SS, Yuen KY. Avian influenza virus infections in humans. Chest 2006;129:156168.
  • 2
    WHO. The World Health Organization Global Influenza Program Surveillance Network. Evolution of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Asia. Emerg Infect Dis 2005;11:15151521.
  • 3
    Stephenson I, Democratis J. Influenza: current threat from avian influenza. Br Med Bull 2005;75–76:6380.
  • 4
    WHO. World Health Organization Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response. Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to WHO, 2007. .
  • 5
    Guan Y, Peiris JS, Lipatov AS et al. Emergence of multiple genotypes of H5N1 avian influenza viruses in Hong Kong SAR. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:89508955.
  • 6
    Webster RG, Govorkova EA. H5N1 influenza – continuing evolution and spread. N Engl J Med 2006;355:21742177.
  • 7
    Pourmand N, Diamond L, Garten R et al. Rapid and highly informative diagnostic assay for H5N1 influenza viruses. PLoS ONE 2006;1:e95.
  • 8
    Lipatov AS, Hoffmann E, Salomon R, Yen HL, Webster RG. Cross-protectiveness and immunogenicity of influenza A/Duck/Singapore/3/97(H5) vaccines against infection with A/Vietnam/1203/04(H5N1) virus in ferrets. J Infect Dis 2006;194:10401043.
  • 9
    Lipatov AS, Webby RJ, Govorkova EA, Krauss S, Webster RG. Efficacy of H5 influenza vaccines produced by reverse genetics in a lethal mouse model. J Infect Dis 2005;191:12161220.
  • 10
    Suguitan AL Jr, McAuliffe J, Mills KL et al. Live, attenuated influenza A H5N1 candidate vaccines provide broad cross-protection in mice and ferrets. PLoS Med 2006;3:e360.
  • 11
    Lu X, Edwards LE, Desheva JA et al. Cross-protective immunity in mice induced by live-attenuated or inactivated vaccines against highly pathogenic influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Vaccine 2006;24:65886593.
  • 12
    Luke CJ, Subbarao K. Vaccines for pandemic influenza. Emerg Infect Dis 2006;12:6672.
  • 13
    Cox RJ, Brokstad KA, Ogra P. Influenza virus: immunity and vaccination strategies. Comparison of the immune response to inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines. Scand J Immunol 2004;59:115.
  • 14
    Nichol KL, Treanor JJ. Vaccines for seasonal and pandemic influenza. J Infect Dis 2006;194(Suppl. 2):S111S118.
  • 15
    Bresson JL, Perronne C, Launay O et al. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated split-virion influenza A/Vietnam/1194/2004 (H5N1) vaccine: phase I randomised trial. Lancet 2006;367:16571664.
  • 16
    Wilson JN, Nokes DJ, Dimmock NJ. Analysis of the relationship between immunogenicity and immunity for viral subunit vaccines. J Med Virol 2001;64:560568.
  • 17
    Potter CW, Oxford JS. Determinants of immunity to influenza infection in man. Br Med Bull 1979;35:6975.
  • 18
    Treanor JJ, Campbell JD, Zangwill KM, Rowe T, Wolff M. Safety and immunogenicity of an inactivated subvirion influenza A (H5N1) vaccine. N Engl J Med 2006;354:13431351.
  • 19
    Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products. Guideline on Dossier Structure and Content for Pandemic Influenza Vaccine Marketing Authorisation Application (CPMP/VEG/4717/03). London, UK: The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medical Products (EMEA), 2004.
  • 20
    Clinical Data Needed to Support the Licensure of Pandemic Influenza Vaccines (Draft Guidance). U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Centre for Biologics Evaluation and Research. Rockville, MD, USA, 2006.
  • 21
    WHO. Antigenic and genetic characteristics of H5N1 viruses and candidate H5N1 vaccine viruses developed for potential use as pre-pandemic vaccines. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 2006;81:328330.
  • 22
    Stephenson I, Das RG, Wood JM, Katz JM. Comparison of neutralising antibody assays for detection of antibody to influenza A/H3N2 viruses: an international collaborative study. Vaccine 2007;25:40564063.
  • 23
    Stephenson I, Bugarini R, Nicholson KG et al. Cross-reactivity to highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses after vaccination with nonadjuvanted and MF59-adjuvanted influenza A/Duck/Singapore/97 (H5N3) vaccine: a potential priming strategy. J Infect Dis 2005;191:12101215.
  • 24
    Podda A. The adjuvanted influenza vaccines with novel adjuvants: experience with the MF59-adjuvanted vaccine. Vaccine 2001;19:26732680.
  • 25
    Vogel FR. Improving vaccine performance with adjuvants. Clin Infect Dis 2000;30(Suppl. 3):S266S270.
  • 26
    O’Hagan DT, MacKichan ML, Singh M. Recent developments in adjuvants for vaccines against infectious diseases. Biomol Eng 2001;18:6985.
  • 27
    Middleton D, Bingham J, Selleck P et al. Efficacy of inactivated vaccines against H5N1 avian influenza infection in ducks. Virology 2007;359:6671.
  • 28
    Govorkova EA, Webby RJ, Humberd J, Seiler JP, Webster RG. Immunization with reverse-genetics-produced H5N1 influenza vaccine protects ferrets against homologous and heterologous challenge. J Infect Dis 2006;194:159167.
  • 29
    Cox RJ, Hovden AO, Brokstad KA, Szyszko E, Madhun AS, Haaheim LR. The humoral immune response and protective efficacy of vaccination with inactivated split and whole influenza virus vaccines in BALB/c mice. Vaccine 2006;24:65856587.
  • 30
    Ferguson NM, Cummings DA, Fraser C, Cajka JC, Cooley PC, Burke DS. Strategies for mitigating an influenza pandemic. Nature 2006;442:448452.