• 1
    Fiore AE, Shay DK, Broder K et al. Prevention and control of seasonal influenza with vaccines: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), 2009. MMWR Recomm Rep 2009; 58:152.
  • 2
    Ashkenazi S, Vertruyen A, Aristegui J et al. Superior relative efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine compared with inactivated influenza vaccine in young children with recurrent respiratory tract infections. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25:870879.
  • 3
    Fleming DM, Crovari P, Wahn U et al. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of live attenuated cold-adapted influenza vaccine, trivalent, with trivalent inactivated influenza virus vaccine in children and adolescents with asthma. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2006; 25:860869.
  • 4
    Belshe RB, Toback SL, Yi T, Ambrose CS. Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children 6 months to 17 years of age. Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2010; 4:141145.
  • 5
    Belshe RB, Edwards KM, Vesikari T et al. Live attenuated versus inactivated influenza vaccine in infants and young children. N Engl J Med 2007; 356:685696.
  • 6
    Yang CF, Belshe RB, Kemble G et al. Genetic sequence analysis of influenza viruses and illness severity in ill children previously vaccinated with live attenuated or inactivated influenza vaccine. Vaccine 2010; 28:51285134.
  • 7
    Piedra PA, Gaglani MJ, Kozinetz CA et al. Trivalent live attenuated intranasal influenza vaccine administered during the 2003-2004 influenza type A (H3N2) outbreak provided immediate, direct, and indirect protection in children. Pediatrics 2007; 120:e553e564.
  • 8
    Halloran ME, Piedra PA, Longini IM Jr et al. Efficacy of trivalent, cold-adapted, influenza virus vaccine against influenza A (Fujian), a drift variant, during 2003–2004. Vaccine 2007; 25:40384045.
  • 9
    Treanor JJ, Kotloff K, Betts RF et al. Evaluation of trivalent, live, cold-adapted (CAIV-T) and inactivated (TIV) influenza vaccines in prevention of virus infection and illness following challenge of adults with wild-type influenza A (H1N1), A (H3N2), and B viruses. Vaccine 1999; 18:899906.
  • 10
    Monto AS, Ohmit SE, Petrie JG et al. Comparative efficacy of inactivated and live attenuated influenza vaccines. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:12601267.
  • 11
    Ohmit SE, Victor JC, Rotthoff JR et al. Prevention of antigenically drifted influenza by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. N Engl J Med 2006; 355:25132522.
  • 12
    Ohmit SE, Victor JC, Teich ER et al. Prevention of symptomatic seasonal influenza in 2005-2006 by inactivated and live attenuated vaccines. J Infect Dis 2008; 198:312317.
  • 13
    Wang Z, Tobler S, Roayaei J, Eick A. Live attenuated or inactivated influenza vaccines and medical encounters for respiratory illnesses among US military personnel. JAMA 2009; 301:945953.
  • 14
    Eick AA, Wang Z, Hughes H, Ford SM, Tobler SK. Comparison of the trivalent live attenuated vs. inactivated influenza vaccines among U.S. military service members. Vaccine 2009; 27:35683575.
  • 15
    Bridges CB, Thompson WW, Meltzer MI et al. Effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza vaccination of healthy working adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2000; 284:16551663.
  • 16
    Nichol KL, Mendelman PM, Mallon KP et al. Effectiveness of live, attenuated intranasal influenza virus vaccine in healthy, working adults: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 1999; 282:137144.
  • 17
    Forrest BD, Steele AD, Hiemstra LA, Rappaport R, Ambrose CS, Gruber WC. A prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing the safety and efficacy of trivalent live attenuated and inactivated influenza vaccines in adults 60 years of age and older. Options for the Control of Influenza VII; 2010 September 3–7; Hong Kong SAR, China.
  • 18
    De Villiers PJ, Steele AD, Hiemstra LA et al. Efficacy and safety of a live attenuated influenza vaccine in adults 60 years of age and older. Vaccine 2009; 28:228234.
  • 19
    Govaert TM, Thijs CT, Masurel N, Sprenger MJ, Dinant GJ, Knottnerus JA. The efficacy of influenza vaccination in elderly individuals. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. JAMA 1994; 272:16611665.
  • 20
    Edwards KM, Dupont WD, Westrich MK, Plummer WD Jr, Palmer PS, Wright PF. A randomized controlled trial of cold-adapted and inactivated vaccines for the prevention of influenza A disease. J Infect Dis 1994; 169:6876.
  • 21
    Treanor JJ, Mattison HR, Dumyati G et al. Protective efficacy of combined live intranasal and inactivated influenza A virus vaccines in the elderly. Ann Intern Med 1992; 117:625633.
  • 22
    Gorse GJ, O’Connor TZ, Young SL et al. Efficacy trial of live, cold-adapted and inactivated influenza virus vaccines in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a VA cooperative study. Vaccine 2003; 21:21332144.
  • 23
    Gorse GJ, O’Connor TZ, Young SL et al. Impact of a winter respiratory virus season on patients with COPD and association with influenza vaccination. Chest 2006; 130:11091116.
  • 24
    Jackson L, Gaglani M, Keyserling H et al. Safety, efficacy, and immunogenicity of an inactivated influenza vaccine in healthy adults: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial over two influenza seasons. BMC Infect Dis 2010; 10:71.
  • 25
    Levin MJ, Song LY, Fenton T et al. Shedding of live vaccine virus, comparative safety, and influenza-specific antibody responses after administration of live attenuated and inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines to HIV-infected children. Vaccine 2008; 26:42104217.
  • 26
    Belshe RB, Ambrose C, Yi T. Safety and efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children 2–7 years of age. Vaccine 2008; 26S:D10D16.
  • 27
    Rhorer J, Ambrose CS, Dickinson S et al. Efficacy of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children: a meta-analysis of nine randomized clinical trials. Vaccine 2009; 27:11011110.
  • 28
    Jefferson T, Rivetti A, Harnden A, Di Pietrantonj C, Demicheli V. Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2008; CD004879.
  • 29
    Zangwill KM, Belshe RB. Safety and efficacy of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in young children: a summary for the new era of routine vaccination. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2004; 23:189197.
  • 30
    Negri E, Colombo C, Giordano L, Groth N, Apolone G, La Vecchia C. Influenza vaccine in healthy children: a meta-analysis. Vaccine 2005; 23:28512861.
  • 31
    Cox RJ, Brokstad KA, Ogra P. Influenza virus: immunity and vaccination strategies. Comparison of the immune response to inactivated and live, attenuated influenza vaccines. Scand J Immunol 2004; 59:115.
  • 32
    Johnson PR, Feldman S, Thompson JM, Mahoney JD, Wright PF. Immunity to influenza A virus infection in young children: a comparison of natural infection, live cold-adapted vaccine, and inactivated vaccine. J Infect Dis 1986; 154:121127.