• 1
    European Commission. Commission Decision 2007/268/EC of 13 April 2007 on the implementation of surveillance programmes for avian influenza in poultry and wild birds to be carried out in the Member States and amending Decision 2004/450/EC. OJEU 2007; 115:2003.
  • 2
    Gonzales JL, Elbers ARW, Bouma A, Koch G, de Wit JJ, Stegeman JA. Low-pathogenic notifiable avian influenza serosurveillance and the risk of infection in poultry – a critical review of the European Union active surveillance programme (2005–2007). Influenza Other Respir Viruses 2010; 4:9199.
  • 3
    Martin PAJ, Cameron AR, Greiner M. Demonstrating freedom from disease using multiple complex data sources: 1: a new methodology based on scenario trees. Prev Vet Med 2007; 79:7197.
  • 4
    PVE. Livestock, Meat and Eggs in the Netherlands. Zoetermeer: Product Board for Livestock, Meat and Eggs, 2011. Available at (Accessed 15 August 2011).
  • 5
    Halvorson DA, Kelleher CJ, Senne DA. Epizootiology of avian influenza: effect of season on incidence in sentinel ducks and domestic turkeys in Minnesota. Appl Environ Microbiol 1985; 49:914919.
  • 6
    Koch G, Elbers ARW. Outdoor ranging of poultry: a major risk factor for the introduction and development of High-Pathogenicity Avian Influenza. NJAS 2006; 54:179194.
  • 7
    European Commission. SANCO/10110/2008. Survey Programme for Avian Influenza in Poultry and Wild Birds: the Netherlands, Brussels: European Commission, 2008. Available at (accessed 30 July 2011).
  • 8
    R Development Core Team. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2005. Available at (accessed 5 January 2011).
  • 9
    Kulldorff M. A spatial scan statistic. Commun Stat Theory Methods 1997; 26:14811496.
  • 10
    Kulldorff M. SatScan. Software for the Spatial, Temporal, and Space-Time Scan Statistics. Boston, USA: Information Management Services Inc., 2011. Available at (accessed 5 July 2011).
  • 11
    Mundt E, Gay L, Jones L, Saavedra G, Tompkins S, Tripp R. Replication and pathogenesis associated with H5N1, H5N2, and H5N3 low-pathogenic avian influenza virus infection in chickens and ducks. Arch Virol 2009; 154:12411248.
  • 12
    Tumpey TM, Kapczynski DR, Swayne DE. Comparative susceptibility of chickens and turkeys to avian influenza A H7N2 virus infection and protective efficacy of a commercial avian influenza H7N2 virus vaccine. Avian Dis 2004; 48:167176.
  • 13
    Alexander DJ. An overview of the epidemiology of avian influenza. Vaccine 2007; 25:56375644.
  • 14
    Graat EAM, de Jong MCM, Frankena K, Franken P. Modelling the effect of surveillance programmes on spread of bovine herpesvirus 1 between certified cattle herds. Vet Microbiol 2001; 79:193208.