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Multiannual patterns of influenza A transmission in Chinese live bird market systems

Authors

  • Kim M. Pepin,

    1. International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
    2. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA
    3. Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
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    • These authors are contributed equally to this work.

  • Jia Wang,

    1. International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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    • These authors are contributed equally to this work.

  • Colleen T. Webb,

    1. International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
    2. Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
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  • Gavin J. D. Smith,

    1. International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
    2. Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School, Singapore
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  • Mary Poss,

    1. Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    2. Penn State University, State College, PA, USA
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  • Peter J. Hudson,

    1. Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD, USA
    2. Penn State University, State College, PA, USA
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  • Wenshan Hong,

    1. International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
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  • Huachen Zhu,

    1. International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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  • Steven Riley,

    1. International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
    2. MRC Centre for Outbreak Analysis and Modelling, Imperial College London, London, UK.
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  • Yi Guan

    1. International Institution of Infection and Immunity, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, China
    2. State Key Laboratory of Emerging Infectious Diseases, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China
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Steven Riley, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School. Norfolk Place, London, W2 1PG. E-mail: s.riley@imperial.ac.uk and yguan@hkucc.hku.hk

Abstract

Please cite this paper as: Pepin et al. (2012) Multiannual patterns of influenza A transmission in Chinese live bird market systems. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00354.x.

Background  Avian influenza viruses (AIV) cause huge economic losses in poultry industries and pose a substantial threat to human health. However, predicting AIV epizootics and emergence in humans is confounded by insufficient empirical data on the ecology and dynamics of AIV in poultry systems. To address this gap, we quantified incidence patterns for 13 hemagglutinin subtypes of AIV using 6 years of surveillance data that were collected from ten different species of poultry and three different types of poultry holdings (contexts) – retail, wholesale, or farms.

Methods  We collected 42 646 samples in Shantou, China between 2000 and 2006. We screened samples for hemagglutinin subtypes 1–13 of AIV and Avian Paramyxovirus-type-1 (APMV-1) using monospecific antisera in hemagglutination inhibition tests. We analyzed the data to determine seasonality patterns, subtype–host, and subtype–subtype interactions as well as subtype bias in incidence in different contexts.

Results  H3, H6, H9, and APMV-1 were the most prevalent. No significant seasonality was found when all subtypes were considered together. For most AIV subtypes and APMV-1, there was subtype specificity for host, context, and coinfection partner. H5 showed the most generalized host usage pattern, followed by H9 and H6.

Conclusion  Subtype-specific patterns because of host, context, and other subtypes suggest that risk assessments that exclude these details are likely inaccurate. Surveillance should include longitudinal sampling of multiple host species in multiple contexts. Quantitative models of control strategies must consider multiple subtypes, hosts, and source contexts to assess the effectiveness of interventions.

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