Table S1. Infections in each host species by subtype.

Table S2. Co-infection matrix for each strain in ducks.

Table S3. Co-infections for H5 in different host species.

Figure S1. Host sampling in retail markets.

Figure S2. Host sampling in farms and wholesale markets.

Figure S3. Temporal patterns of host usage for the most prevalent strains and H5 in 5 hosts.

Figure S4. Temporal patterns of occurrence in different contexts for the most prevalent strains and H5.

Figure S5. Time series of the proportion of al l infections containing × number of strains for different sets of hosts and contexts.

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