Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus
Article first published online: 12 APR 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Volume 7, Issue 1, pages 85–92, January 2013
How to Cite
Hall, J. S., Krauss, S., Franson, J. C., TeSlaa, J. L., Nashold, S. W., Stallknecht, D. E., Webby, R. J. and Webster, R. G. (2013), Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 85–92. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00358.x
- Issue published online: 17 DEC 2012
- Article first published online: 12 APR 2012
- Accepted 21 February 2012. Published Online 12 April 2012.
Please cite this paper as: Hall et al. (2012) Avian influenza in shorebirds: experimental infection of ruddy turnstones (Arenaria interpres) with avian influenza virus. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00358.x.
Background Low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) have been reported in shorebirds, especially at Delaware Bay, USA, during spring migration. However, data on patterns of virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome are lacking. The ruddy turnstone (Arenaria interpres) is the shorebird species with the highest prevalence of influenza virus at Delaware Bay.
Objectives The primary objective of this study was to experimentally assess the patterns of influenza virus excretion, minimal infectious doses, and clinical outcome in ruddy turnstones.
Methods We experimentally challenged ruddy turnstones using a common LPAIV shorebird isolate, an LPAIV waterfowl isolate, or a highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus. Cloacal and oral swabs and sera were analyzed from each bird.
Results Most ruddy turnstones had pre-existing antibodies to avian influenza virus, and many were infected at the time of capture. The infectious doses for each challenge virus were similar (103·6–104·16 EID50), regardless of exposure history. All infected birds excreted similar amounts of virus and showed no clinical signs of disease or mortality. Influenza A-specific antibodies remained detectable for at least 2 months after inoculation.
Conclusions These results provide a reference for interpretation of surveillance data, modeling, and predicting the risks of avian influenza transmission and movement in these important hosts.