Influenza surveillance from November 2008 to 2011; including pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Bhutan
Article first published online: 20 JUL 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Volume 7, Issue 3, pages 426–430, May 2013
How to Cite
Wangchuk, S., Thapa, B., Zangmo, S., Jarman, R. G., Bhoomiboonchoo, P. and Gibbons, R. V. (2013), Influenza surveillance from November 2008 to 2011; including pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 in Bhutan. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 426–430. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00409.x
- Issue published online: 17 APR 2013
- Article first published online: 20 JUL 2012
- Accepted 16 June 2012. Published Online 20 July 2012.
Objective Describe the influenza A(H1N1) pandemic in Bhutan.
Design Observational study from sentinel surveillance sites.
Setting Bhutan remains isolated, with only one to two flights a day at the lone airport, no trains, and only three major roads that enter from India.
Main outcome measures PCR positive human respiratory samples
Results The first case of A(H1N1)pdm09 infection was detected in Bhutan in July 2009, 3 months after the virus was first reported in Mexico in April 2009. During the official WHO pandemic period (11 June 2009 to 8 August 2010), a total of 2149 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR of which 22.7% (487) were confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09; H3N2, H1N1, and B were positive in 2.2%, 1.1%, and 7.2%, respectively. The highest rate of A(H1N1)pdm09 cases (57.4%) was detected in the 6-20 year-old age group. Importantly, Bhutan increased from 3 sentinel sites in April 2009 to 11 a year later, and in April 2010 established PCR capability for influenza.
Conclusions Despite relative isolation, the A(H1N1)pdm09 reached Bhutan within 3 months of identification in Mexico. The H1N1 pandemic has made Bhutan more prepared for epidemics in the future.