• 1
    Dawood FS, Jain S, Finelli L et al. Novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. N Engl J Meg2009; 360:26052615.
  • 2
    WHO. In: Girard MP,Tam JS, Assossou OM, et al. A (H1N1) influenza virus pandemic: A review. Vaccine 2009; 28:4895–4902.
  • 3
    Rothberg MB, Haessler SD. Complications of seasonal and pandemic influenza. Crit Care Med2010; 38:e91e97.
  • 4
    WHO checklist for influenza pandemic preparedness planning 2005. Department of Communicable Disease Surveillance and Response Global Influenza Programme. Available online: http://
  • 5
    Casalegno JS, Bouscambert-Duchamp M, Morfin F et al. Rhinovirus, A (H1N1)v, RVS: The race for hivernal pandemics, France 2009-2010. Euro Surveill2009;14, pii=19390. Available Online:
  • 6
    Watanabe AS, Carraro E, Moreira L et al. Respiratory virus infections among hospitalized patients with suspected influenza A H1N1 2009 virus during the first pandemic wave in Brazil. CMAJ2010; 182:257264.
  • 7
    Louie J, Jean C, Chen TH et al. Bacterial coinfections in lung tissue specimens from fatal cases of 2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1). Morb Mortal Wkly Rep2009; 58:10711074.
  • 8
    Choi EH, Lee HJ, Kim SJ et al. The association of newly identified respiratory viruses with lowers respiratory tract infections in Korean children, 2000-2005. Clin Infect Dis2006; 43:585592.
  • 9
    Papadopoulos NG, Moustaki M, Tsolia M et al. Association of rhinovirus infection with increased disease severity in acute bronchiolitis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med2002; 165:12851289.
  • 10
    Aberle JH, Aberle SW, Pracher E et al. Single versus dual respiratory virus infections in hospitalized infants: Impact on clinical course of disease and interferon-y response. Pediatr Infect Dis J2005; 24:605610.
  • 11
    Long RB, Westin J, Olofsson S et al. Prospective evaluation of a novel multiplex real-time PCR assay for detection of fifteen respiratory pathogens. Duration of symptoms significantly affects detection rate. J Clin Virol2010; 47:589594.
  • 12
    Bonzel L, Tenenbaum T, Schroten H et al. Frequent detection of viral coinfection in children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection using a real-time polymerase chain reaction. Pediatr Infect Dis J2008; 27:589594.
  • 13
    Peng D, Zhao DC, Liu JT et al. Multipathogen infections in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections. Virol J2009; 6:155162.
  • 14
    Mahony J, Chong S, Merante F et al. Development of a respiratory virus panel test for detection of twenty human respiratory viruses by use of multiplex PCR and a fluid microbead-based assay. J Clin Microbiol2007; 45:29652970.
  • 15
    Machado CM, Vilas BoasLS, Mendes A et al. Low mortality rates related to respiratory virus infections after bone marrow transplant. Bone Marrow Transplant2003; 31:695700.
  • 16
    Tang JW, Lai FYL, Wong F et al. Incidence of common respiratory viral infections related to climate factors in hospitalized children in Hong Kong. Epidemiol Infect2010; 138:226235.
  • 17
    Tregoning JS, Schwarze J. Respiratory viral infections in infants: causes, clinical symptoms, virology, and immunology. Clin Microbiol Rev2010; 23:7498.
  • 18
    Ren L, Gonzalez R, Wang Z et al. Prevalence of human respiratory viruses in adults with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing, 2005-2007. Clin Microbiol Infect2009; 15:11461153.
  • 19
    Franz A, Adams O, Willems R et al. Correlation of viral load of respiratory pathogens and co-infections with disease severity in children hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection. J Clin Virol2010; 48:239245.
  • 20
    Glezen P, Greenberg SB, Atmar RL et al. Impact of respiratory virus infections on persons with chronic underlying conditions. JAMA2010; 283:499505.
  • 21
    Von Linstow ML, Larsen HH, Olsen JE et al. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized Danish children with acute respiratory tract infection. Scand J Infect Dis2004; 36:578584.
  • 22
    Skowronski DM, De Serres G, Crowcroft NS et al. Association between the 2008-09 seasonal influenza vaccine and pandemic H1N1 illness during spring-summer 2009: four observational studies from Canada. PLoS Med.2010; 7:e1000258.
  • 23
    Brunstein JD, Cline CL, McKinney S et al. Evidence from multiplex molecular assays for complex multipathogen interaction in acute respiratory infections. J Clin Microbiol2008; 46:97102.
  • 24
    Longtin J, Marchand-Austing A, Winter AL et al. Rhinovirus outbreaks in long-term care facilities, Ontario, Canada. Emerg Infect Dis2010; 16:14631465.
  • 25
    Cilla G, Onate E, Perez-Yarza EG et al. Viruses in community- acquired pneumonia in children aged less than 3 years old; High rate of viral confection. J Med Virol2008; 80:18431849.
  • 26
    Li CC, Wang L, Eng HL et al. Correlation of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 viral load with disease severity and prolonged viral shedding in children. Emerg Infect Dis2010; 16:12661272.
  • 27
    Foisy G, Rosella LC, Sanderson R et al. Self-reported pH1N1 influenza vaccination coverage for Ontario. Statistics Canada2011; 22:15.
  • 28
    Palacios G, Hornig M, Cisterna D et al. Streptococcus pneumonia coinfection is correlated with the severity of H1N1 pandemic influenza. PLoS ONE2009; 4:e8540.
  • 29
    Jean C, Louie JK, Glaser CA et al. Invasive group A streptococcal infection concurrent with 2009 H1N1 influenza. Clin Infect Dis2010; 50:e59e62.