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Increased symptom severity but unchanged neuraminidase inhibitor effectiveness for A(H1N1)pdm09 in the 2010–2011 season: comparison with the previous season and with seasonal A(H3N2) and B


Naoki Kawai, Kawai Clinic, 4-9 Tonomachi, Gifu City, 500-8116, Japan. E-mail: nkawai@city.gifu.med.or.jp


Background  No studies of the clinical symptoms before starting therapy or of the effectiveness of neuraminidase inhibitors (NAIs) have been carried out of the 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 seasons that compare A(H1N1)pdm09 or the three circulating types of influenza virus.

Methods  The clinical symptoms and duration of fever (body temperature ≥37·5°C) after the first dose of an NAI (oseltamivir, zanamivir, laninamivir) were analyzed. PCR was carried out for 365 patients with A(H1N1)pdm09 in the 2009–2010 season and for 388 patients with one of the three types of influenza circulating in the 2010–2011 season. IC50 for the three NAIs was also analyzed in 51 patients in the 2010–2011 season.

Results  The peak body temperature was significantly higher in 2010–2011 than in 2009–2010 for patients under 20 years with A(H1N1)pdm09, and in the 2010–2011 season for children 15 years or younger with A(H1N1)pdm09 than for those with other virus types. The percentage of A(H1N1)pdm09 patients with loss of appetite or fatigue was significantly higher in 2010–2011 than in the previous season. The duration of fever was not affected by the kind of NAI or by age in multiple regression analysis. The percentage of patients afebrile at 48 hours after the first dose of NAI was significantly higher for A(H1N1)pdm09 than for A(H3N2) (laninamivir) or B (oseltamivir and laninamivir).

Conclusion  Although the clinical symptoms of A(H1N1)pdm09 were slightly more severe in the 2010–2011 season, the effectiveness of the NAIs remained high in comparison with 2009–2010 and with other types of seasonal influenza.