Influenza surveillance in Europe: establishing epidemic thresholds by the Moving Epidemic Method
Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2012
© 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Volume 7, Issue 4, pages 546–558, July 2013
How to Cite
Vega, T., Lozano, J. E., Meerhoff, T., Snacken, R., Mott, J., Ortiz de Lejarazu, R. and Nunes, B. (2013), Influenza surveillance in Europe: establishing epidemic thresholds by the Moving Epidemic Method. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses, 7: 546–558. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2012.00422.x
- Issue online: 11 JUN 2013
- Version of Record online: 16 AUG 2012
- Accepted 27 June 2012. Published Online 16 August 2012.
Please cite this paper as: Vega et al. (2012) Influenza surveillance in Europe: establishing epidemic thresholds by the moving epidemic method. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 7(4), 546–558.
Background Timely influenza surveillance is important to monitor influenza epidemics.
Objectives (i) To calculate the epidemic threshold for influenza-like illness (ILI) and acute respiratory infections (ARI) in 19 countries, as well as the thresholds for different levels of intensity. (ii) To evaluate the performance of these thresholds.
Methods The moving epidemic method (MEM) has been developed to determine the baseline influenza activity and an epidemic threshold. False alerts, detection lags and timeliness of the detection of epidemics were calculated. The performance was evaluated using a cross-validation procedure.
Results The overall sensitivity of the MEM threshold was 71·8% and the specificity was 95·5%. The median of the timeliness was 1 week (range: 0–4·5).
Conclusions The method produced a robust and specific signal to detect influenza epidemics. The good balance between the sensitivity and specificity of the epidemic threshold to detect seasonal epidemics and avoid false alerts has advantages for public health purposes. This method may serve as standard to define the start of the annual influenza epidemic in countries in Europe.