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The spectrum of non-meningothelial mesenchymal tumors that may arise within the central nervous system is presented, based on the current classification of soft tissue tumors. Among malignant types, hemangiopericytoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, mesenchymal chondrosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma are the most frequent ones. Rare tumor entities are mentioned. As in soft tissue sarcomas, diagnosis is mainly based on light and electron microscopy, while immunohistochemistry can improve accuracy of diagnosis.