Environmental Enrichment Counteracts Alzheimer’s Neurovascular Dysfunction in TgCRND8 Mice

Authors


Kathy Keyvani, MD, Institute of Neuropathology, University Hospital, Domagkstr. 19, D-48129 Münster, Germany (E-mail: kathy.keyvani@ukmuenster.de)

Abstract

We and others have recently demonstrated that cognitive and physical stimulation in form of environmental enrichment reduces cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in transgenic mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease. This effect was independent from amyloid precursor protein (APP) expression or processing and rather a consequence of enhanced clearance of Aβ. However, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we show that environmental enrichment in TgCRND8 mice (carrying human APPSwedish+Indiana) affect the neurovascular unit by increased angiogenesis and differential regulation of Aβ receptor/transporter molecules, namely up-regulation of LRP1, ApoE and A2M as well as down-regulation of RAGE so that brain to blood Aβ clearance is facilitated. These results suggest a hitherto unknown effect of environmental enrichment counteracting the vascular dysfunction in Alzheimer diseased brain.

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