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Keywords:

  • meningioma;
  • methylation;
  • NF2;
  • TIMP3;
  • tumor suppressor

Abstract

The gene for the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3) on 22q12.3 had been reported to be inactivated by promoter methylation in various types of cancers, with controversial findings in meningiomas. We performed direct sodium bisulfite sequencing in a series of 50 meningiomas, including 27 benign meningiomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grade I], 11 atypical meningiomas (WHO grade II) and 12 anaplastic meningiomas (WHO grade III), and found hypermethylation of TIMP3 in 67% of anaplastic meningiomas, but only 22% of atypical and 17% of benign meningiomas. Moreover, TIMP3 methylation scores were significantly inversely correlated with TIMP3 mRNA expression levels (P = 0.0123), and treatment of the meningioma cell line Ben-Men-1 with demethylating agents induced an increased TIMP3 mRNA expression. TIMP3 is located in the chromosomal band 22q12, the allelic loss of which occurs early in meningioma tumorigenesis and preferentially targets the NF2 tumor suppressor gene. In our tumor panel, all meningiomas with TIMP3 hypermethylation—except for a single case—exhibited allelic losses on 22q12.3. Thus, TIMP3 inactivation by methylation seems fairly exclusive to meningiomas with allelic losses on 22q12 but—in contrast to NF2 mutation—appears to be involved in meningioma progression as it is associated with a more aggressive, high-grade meningioma phenotype.