X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is the most common peroxisomal disorder. The disease is characterized by the accumulation of very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFA; >C22) in plasma and tissues. X-ALD is caused by mutations in the ABCD1 gene encoding ALDP, an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding-cassette (ABC) transporter located in the peroxisomal membrane. In this paper, we describe the current knowledge on the function of ALDP, its role in peroxisomal VLCFA beta-oxidation and the consequences of a defect in ALDP on VLCFA metabolism. Furthermore, we pay special attention to the role of the VLCFA elongation system in VLCFA homeostasis, with elongation of very long-chain fatty acids like-1 (ELOVL1) as key player, and its relevance to X-ALD.