Flaxseed in Breadmaking: Effects on Sensory Quality, Aging, and Composition of Bakery Products

Authors

  • Terhi A. Pohjanheimo,

    1. Authors Pohjanheimo, Hakala, Tahvonen, and Salminen are with Functional Foods Forum, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland. Authors Hakala and Kallio are with Dept. of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. Direct inquiries to author Pohjanheimo (E-mail: terhi.pohjanheimo@utu.fi).
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  • Mari A. Hakala,

    1. Authors Pohjanheimo, Hakala, Tahvonen, and Salminen are with Functional Foods Forum, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland. Authors Hakala and Kallio are with Dept. of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. Direct inquiries to author Pohjanheimo (E-mail: terhi.pohjanheimo@utu.fi).
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  • Raija L. Tahvonen,

    1. Authors Pohjanheimo, Hakala, Tahvonen, and Salminen are with Functional Foods Forum, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland. Authors Hakala and Kallio are with Dept. of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. Direct inquiries to author Pohjanheimo (E-mail: terhi.pohjanheimo@utu.fi).
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  • Seppo J. Salminen,

    1. Authors Pohjanheimo, Hakala, Tahvonen, and Salminen are with Functional Foods Forum, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland. Authors Hakala and Kallio are with Dept. of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. Direct inquiries to author Pohjanheimo (E-mail: terhi.pohjanheimo@utu.fi).
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  • Heikki P. Kallio

    1. Authors Pohjanheimo, Hakala, Tahvonen, and Salminen are with Functional Foods Forum, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20520 Turku, Finland. Authors Hakala and Kallio are with Dept. of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, Univ. of Turku, FIN-20014 Turku, Finland. Direct inquiries to author Pohjanheimo (E-mail: terhi.pohjanheimo@utu.fi).
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Abstract

ABSTRACT:  This paper describes the effect of flaxseed on two bread formulations. The quality of bread rolls—containing flaxseed—and the quality of cinnamon rolls—containing flaxseed and flaxseed oil—is determined by sensory evaluation (texture, odor, and flavor), instrumental texture measurement and chemical analysis (fatty acids, fiber, secoisolarisiresinol diglycoside, and cadmium). Bread aging is monitored by measuring sensory attributes during storage. The results indicate that the flaxseed rolls retain moisture and softness more efficiently than the control rolls that do not contain flaxseed. No off-odors were detected during the storage period from 0 to 6 d at room temperature (+22 °C), although flaxseed rolls and cinnamon rolls were discovered to be high in unsaturated fats. The major fatty acid in both bakery samples that contained flaxseed was α-linolenic acid. The flaxseed rolls were also high in fiber. Therefore, from a nutritional viewpoint flaxseed shows beneficial properties in breadmaking. It has a positive impact on the texture parameters during storage as well as on the nutritional composition, for example, the content of fiber and unsaturated fats.

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