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Keywords:

  • raisin;
  • antioxidant;
  • beef;
  • pork;
  • chicken

ABSTRACT:  The objective of this study was to evaluate the possible antioxidant activity of raisin paste added to raw ground beef, pork, or chicken before cooking to 163 °C. Samples were held at 2 °C for up to 14 d. TBA values were measured using a distillation method, to avoid yellow color interference found in “wet” TBA methods. Sample meat flavor intensity, rancid flavor intensity, and raisin flavor intensity were evaluated by a trained panel (n = 6). Addition of raisin paste lowered (p < 0.05) TBA values and decreased panel scores for rancid flavor scores of all meat samples in a concentration-dependent manner. Highest antioxidant effects were obtained with a minimum of 1.5%, 2.0%, or 2.0% raisin paste in cooked ground beef, pork, or chicken, respectively. There was a high correlation (0.93, 0.94, 0.94) between TBA values and sensory rancid flavor scores in beef, pork, and chicken samples respectively. Addition of a reducing sugar (glucose) was nearly as effective as raisins for maintenance of low TBA values and rancid flavor scores, probably due to antioxidant effects of Maillard browning products. There was no detectable raisin flavor in cooked ground beef samples with added raisins. However, all meats with added glucose had a higher raisin flavor intensity score than controls, indicating that panelists associated sweetness with raisin flavor. Maillard browning (sample darkening) was evident after cooking of ground chicken with either raisins or glucose.